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Saiva Siddhanta with special 
reference to Sivaprakasam 



X>x. S. GANGADARAN 

Department of Saiva Siddhanta Philosophy 
Madura! Kamaraj University 



PUBLISHER 

ANGAYARKANNI AGAM 
M-22, T.T.S- Arasaradi. 






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: Saiva Siddhanta with special 
reference to Sivaprakasam 

: S- GANGADARAN 

: English 

: First Edition 

: September 1992 

j 

: The author 

: Demmy 1/8 

: 228 + XVI 

: 1 000 

: Rainbow Printers 

: Rs. 60, USJf 12, Malayshn 9 21, 
Singapore $ 16 

Angayarkanni Agam 
M-22, T.T.S. Arasaradi, 
, Madura/ - 625 010. 



Philosophy and Religions 



Ill 



This book is published with the 

financial assistance of Tirumalai 

Tirupati Devasthanam, Tirupati 

under aid to 'Author's Scheme'. 



IV 

SCHEME OF TRANSLITERATION 

VOWELS CONSONANTS 

c*w a Sards : 



a- o ii'^'id 

iT Q fi) j, 

v ~ e Nasals : 

ft? Bl - fsi . ft 

9 * o t ' 3 

fiTOT jfj 

9^ aw jj n 

w B m 

?yr . n 

Medials ; 

CU y 

* - r 

si) v 
IP ~ I 



To 
Dr. Devasenapathi 




This book is dedicated to Dr. Devasenapathi, one of the 
greatest living Saiva Siddhantin. He was formerly the Director 
of the Dr. Radhakrishnan Institute for advanced Study in 
Philosophy. His books 'Saiva siddhanta as expounded in 
SivajnSna Siddhiyar and its six Commentaries' and 'Of human 
bondage and divine grace' are some of the important works 
onSaivasiddhanta* Heisthegrandsonof Thiru. V.T. Sobrarnania- 
Pillai, who first published the Tiruppugaf- 



PREFACE 

The present publication "Saiva Siddhanta with special 
-eference to Sivaprakasam" was the result of my investi- 
gations carried on by me under the guidance of 
Or V. A- Devasenapathi in the centre for advanced study 
n Philosophy University of Madras during the years April 
1968-June 1972- ' , 

The Sivajmna Rodham written by Meykanrfar is the 
basic work* but is very short. The SiuajMna Siddhiyar, 
verse 'commentary on The Sivajnana, Botfham js a rather 
Ifcngthy work- The Sivaprakasam written by Umapathi Sivam 
: s neither too short nor too long as it consists of only 
100 verses. I want to bring out in this thesis three impor- 
tant "points* Firstly, UmSpati- Sivam has defined the nature 
of God clearly in eight verses- Secondly,; Umapati Sivam 
explains the nature of soul elaborately, in eighty two verses- 
Thirdly, Umapati's skill in explaining things in a few verses 
or in many verses can be clearly seen from this- Umapati's 
effort to connect the MeykanJa Sastras with the teaching 
of the Vedas forms the original contribution of Umdpati 
3ivam and he explains the concept of advaita with this 
background in view- I have tried to bring out in simple 
English these factors clearly in my thesis. 

It is a pleasure to express my sense of gratitude to 
one and all who have helped me in this task. I cannot 
adequately thank my esteemed Professor Dr. V-A. Devasena- 
oathi for his guidance at every stage of my endeavour. 
? 'Whenever I felt any difficulty, he helped me with his 
suggestions. I remember with gratitude the late Prof. T.M-P. 
Mahadevan, Director of the centre and Dr. R. Balasubra- 
'naniam, Reader at the centre (presently" chairman, Indian 
Council for Philosophical Research at Delhi) for their 
concern and encouragement- 



Vlll 

His Holiness, the 23rd Guru Maha Sannidanam Seer 
Va/ar Seer Sivaprakasa Pandora Sannidi took special interest 
jn me and in this work. He has been propogating Saivism 
through correspondence course in Tamilnadu and this 
gracious help is being appreciated by all people- His Holi- 
ness helped me financially to publish this work and 1 am 
obliged to His Holiness. Meyjnana Va//al Thiru. K- Vaidyanathan^ 
Director of the Tiruvflvaduturai Adhinam contact classes is 
carrying out the wishes of His Holiness in an effective 
manner and is giving able and valuable instructions to all 
teachers teaching the Tiruvavaduturai Adhmam contact classes 
and I am grateful to Mr. K. Vaidyanathan and Mr. Sundaresan, 
P-A- to His Holiness for their concern and timely help. 
I am thankful to the Tirumalai Tirupati Devasthanam for 
their generous financial aid in bringinig out this work. 
1 am grateful to Dr. Thomas Thangaraj, Professor of world 
Christianity at Emory University who initiated me in the 
inter faith dialogue which helps me to understand the 
insights of Saiva Siddhanta* 

Dr. C. E. Suriyamoorthy, Prof. & Head, of Solar Energy Science, 
M* K- University and his wife* my colligues Mrs. Dr. S. R. Goma- 
thi come from reputed Saivite background and I am grateful 
to them for their counsel and advice. I thank my colligues 
Dr- Siddhalingiah and Dr. Anandaraj for their help. 1 am 
grateful to Rev. Robinson Levi, People Education Trust, 
Madurai and the rain-bow press for helping me in bringing 
out this publication. I thank my wife Mrs. D- Thilakavathi, 
M-A-B.T. and son G. Azhagan for their encouragement and 
support when I am engaged in publishing this work I am 
obliged to His Holiness Thavatiru Kunrakkudi Adigalar for 
including me in His band of devotees and inspiring me- Finally 
I pay my obeisance to Goddess Angayarkanni and Lord 
Sundarar for guiding me in the path of Saiva Siddhanta. 



GANGADARAN 



IX 

CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION 1 

CHAPTER I 

God (Pati) 24 

CHAPTER II 

Conception of Soul 57 

CHAPTER III 

Conception of adv/aita in Saiva Siddh^nta 100 

CHAPTER IV 

^a (Bonds) 122 



CHAPTER V 

Means to release 140 

CHAPTER VI 

Pancak?ara and release 161 

Notes and References 

INTRODUCTION 173 

Chapter I 179 

Chapter II 187 

Chapter HI 196 

Chapter IV 207 

Chapter V 216 

Chapter VI 219 



X 

Abbreviations 

BS - Brahma S%ras 

PA Pay?kara - Agama 

FB Pauskara - Bha?ya 

SB Sfo/agra - Bhasya 

SN Sangarpa Nirakara^arrr 

SNP , .Siva peri Prakasam 

SP SivaprakasanT 

SSS ~~ Slvajnnna SiddhiyarSubakkami 

TAP Tkuvarutpayan 

TKP Tirukka/irrepa</iyar (Tamil)' 

t "lU " Tiru undiar 

Sivajn^na Mapadl/am (TamM/ 



FOREWORD 



Dr. V* A. Devasenapathi 

(Formerly The Director, 

The Dr. fiadhakrishnaa 

Institute for advanced Study in Philosophy, 
University of Madras) 

40, Muthiyalu Chetty Street, 
Vepery, Madras - 600 OC7- 



After securing a First Class I Rank in B A- degree 
(Philosophy) and a First Class in M-A- Degree (Philosophy)^ 
Mr* Gangadharan joined the Research Department in Indian 
Philosophy, University of Madras for research in ^lvaprakasam t 
a Safva Siddhanta classic. He was awarded the Degree of 
Master of Letters (MJitt) for his thesis. Joining the 
Madurai Kamaraj University, Mr- Gangadharan continiued his 
research in &aiva &iddh%nta choosing JnanQmrtam, another 
classic in &aiva Siddhanta* He was awarded the Degree of 
Dcctor of philosophy fPh.D) for his thesis on Jnan&mrtam. An 
opportunity to study as visiting scholar in the Harvard University 
enabled Dr. Gangadharan to widen his perspective in philosophy 
and Religion* 

The Present Publications f '^aiva Siddhanta w ith special 
reference to ^ivaprakasam" was originally submitted for the 
M.Litt- Degree. &ivaprakas(im,\$ based on the iivu'fianabodham 
and the slvajf^ana Siddhiyar, two basic texts in Saiva Siddhjirda. 
Its author is Um&pati &iv&carya credited by saiva Tradition 
with eight out of the fourteen major Tarn /I texts on Saiva 
Siddh&nta. &ivapraka$am may be viewed as the svapaksa 
of Sfltva siddhanta like the svapaksa of sivajn&na siddhiy&r. 
The parapak$a of &ivapraka$am is another work of Umapatj 
sivacaryar known as aankarpanirzkatanam. In this work, 
wxyw&da and some schools of 5aivism are arranged in 
such an order that each succeeding school refutes the previous 



Xll 

gain a total view of &aiva philosophy- The lesson implicit 
in this procedure is that s*iva siddhanta must be studied by 
each generation in the context of its contemporary religious 
and philosophical trends. 

I am confident that Dr- Gangadharan will continue his 
studies enabling the readers of his Works to view &aiva 
siddh&nta as a living system, vibrant and responsive to 
contemporary needs and trends in philosophy and Religion. 
1 wish all success to Dr- Gangadharan in his research 
Programme. 



Madras \ 
27-7*1992 J , Dr. Devasenapathi 




His Holiness Namasivaya Hurtlga/ 

the founder of the Tiruvavaduturai 

-IdhTnam 




Sivajnana Munivar, one of the greatest exponent of Saiva 
siddhanta, the sage of the Tiruvavaduturai adhlnam. In his 
commentary on 'Sivajnana Map&diyam, he explains some of 
the salient points of 'Saiva siddhanta Philosophy as expounded 
in Sivaprakasam- 



INTRODUCTION 

Among the religious faiths that have continued from 
remote antiquity to mould the thought and life of the Hindus, 
the rmst important are Saivism, Vai?navism and Saktism- of 
these Saivism dates back to Chalcolithic age and perhaps 
even further still- 1 Saivism is one of the living religions 
of India. 2 It is practised by vast numbers of people. Its 
influence is to be seen not only in India, but also in 
Ceylon and other Asia countries. 3 Though it is difficult to 
trace the origins of Saivism, we may say safely that 
Saivism is a happy blend of the two factors one Aryan 
and the other pre-Aryan. Saivism is not a single unit but 
covers many faiths- We find different shades of thought 
and observance of different eligious rites among the schools 
of Saivism. They range from the idealistic monism of Kashmir 
Saivism to the Pluralistic realism of the Siddhanta. In this 
respect we may consider Saivism to be typical of the 
entire range of Hindu thought. 4 

The term 'Saiva Siddhanta' denotes the kinship of this 
school with other schools of Saivism and also differentiates 
it from them- In being one of the Saiva systems, it is in 
agreement with those sects for whom the supreme Being 
is Lord Siva, It differs from other schools in that it has 
an epithet 'Siddhanta' which means 'Accomplished End'- The 
other schools while having some common ground with 
Saiva Siddhanta as suggested above, are on the way to 
Truth, but have not reached it yet. This final end has been 
attained by Saiva Siddhanta which signifies the 'Saivite 



Accomplished End'. There are two views regarding the origin 
of Saiva Siddhanta. According to some* Tamil culture alone 
is responsible for the ernrgence of Sai\/a Siddhanta. They 
maintain that the &iv%jn%na Bodham, the basic text of the 
school, is an original Tamil work and not a translation o* 
the Rauravagama. Others mintain that Saiva Siddhanta is 
the result of both Tamil and Sanskrit cultures- It is to be 
noted that though the $ivajnana Bodham the first systema- 
tic text of the Siddhanta belongs to the thirteenth century, 
we may find Saiva Siddhanta concepts and doctrines in 
earlier philosophical works like the Tiruvundiy&r and Tir- 
kkaiinuppodiyar as well as in the Tev&ram and Tiruvacjgam 
which are the works of Saiva Saints- Traces of Saivism can 
be found even in the classical Sangam literature, belonging 
to the early centuries of the Christian era. For example^ 
the invocatory song of the Ainkuru nuru observes). 

'The universe demonstrable as of three kinds, (he, she 
and it) has sprung under the shade of the two feet of 
the one whose form is shared in halves by His jewel-bedecked 
consort (nkti) of the azure hue/ 5 Though differences of 
opinion regarding the origin of Saiva Siddhanta may be 
possible, this much is agreed upon by both sides that 
Saiva Siddhanta bears the distinctive marks of the Tamil 
genius. 

The Vedas and the Agatnas are gsnerally accepted as 
authoritative scriptures. It msy be mentioned that the Sfi*5 
Samhita considers the relative importance of the Vedas and 
the Agamas and concludes that the Vedas represent a higher 
authority than the Agamas and that the latter are meant 
only for those who have made less progress. 6 

The siddhantin does not accept this view and says 
that both of them are divinely inspired. Tirumwlar, attaching 
equal value to the two sources, explains the different 



3 

features of the two W3rks. 7 He draws attention to the 
practical value of the Agamas for our spiritual life, while 
recognising the theoretical importance of both. If the Vedic 
doctrines are interpreted in the light of the Agamic principles, 
there is no difference between the two literatures the Vedas 
and the Igamas. 8 

Twenty eight Saiwgamas are recognized by the Siddhantin. 
The chief among these is the Kamika. Among the Tamil 
sources, the devotional works of the Saiva Saints collectively 
called as the Panniru Tirumu^ai and the doctrinal exposition 
in the fourteen works known as the Meykanda Qastras are 
considered most the authoritative. 

The preceptors of Saiva Siddhanta are classified into 
two groups: religious preceptors (Samaya Kuravar) and 
Spiritual preceptors (Santana Kwavar), This may be compared 
with the classification of the Alwars and Acaryas jn 
Vai?navism- Tirujnana Sambandhar, Tirunavukkarasar also known 
as Appar, Sundarar and Manfckav&cagar are the religious 
preceptors. The hymns of the first three are called the 
Tevaram, while those of the fourth are known as the 
Tiruvaca?am. The works of these poets are also referred 
to as the Tamil Vedas; for they resemble the Vedic hymns 
which are praises and prayers offered to God* We must 
also note the point that the doctrinal position of Saiva 
Siddhanta was developed from and supported by these 
devotional works and the Saivagamas. 

The chief among the Meykanda &astras is the &ivajnana 
Bodham written by Meyka^dar. This is the basic text of 
Saiva Siddh&nta. This book is terse and his disciple 
Aru/nandi Sivam wrote a verse commentary on it so that 
people could easily understand it- According to tradition 
the disciple of Aru/nandi, Maraijnana Sambandhar did not 
write any treatise. 9 He taught the Meykanda &astras to his 



disciple Umapati Sivam who wrote eight important works 
in Saiva Siddhcfnta which are called as the Siddh&nta astakha- 
The eight works are &waprak&sam f Tiruvarutpayan, Vin& Venba 
Nenju Vidu tudu, Kodikkavi, Po^ipahrodcti f Unmai Neri Vifakkam 
and Sankazpanirakara&am. The four preceptors i e. Meyka9dar 
Aru/ nandi Sivam, Maraijnana Sambandhar and Umapati Sivam 
are called spiritual preceptors- 

We do not have much information about Maraijnana 
Sambandhar The tradition, the invocation made to him by 
his disciple Umapati Sivam and Umapati's writings alone 
provide some material regarding his life. Maraijnana Sambandhar 
must have studied the Vedas, and this is clear from the 
epithet 'Marai' given to him- He was born at Marudur and 
was initiated into Saiva faith by Aru/nandi and this initiation 
took place in kadandai. Maraijnana Sambandhar came to the 
world for perpetuating the descent of spiritual wisdom on 
earth and for the popularisation of the many sided Sawa 
Vedas and that of the line of the great Parasara. Maraijnana 
Sambandhar went to Cidambaram, worshipped Lord Nataraja 
and settled down ai Tirukka/anjeri. Umapathi become a 
disciple and received the saving knowledge from him. 
Maraijnana Samandhar who attained release at Tirukka/anjeri, 
was referred to by Umapati Sivam, besides the usual name 
itself, as Sambandhanadan, 10 Sambandha m^muni, 11 my Lord, 1 * 
Sambandha m^munivan who liberated me from the bonds 
and Maruda Sambandha. 14 

We do not have authentic history of Um&pati Sivam. 
We can gather about him froTs Pulavar Pur%n.am f Saiva 
Sant&n&carya pur^uam and the invocatory poems b/ various 
poets who came after Umapati like the Ennat Ka&ni of 
Tayumanavar. These indicate that Umapati was the fourth 
and the last of the santanacaryas. Following tradition v as 
handed down by the Tamil sources we have the following 
account of Umapati. Umapati was born in Cidambaram and 



is father was Nataraja DTk?ita. 15 Umapati was a scholar 
oth in the Veda.Agamas and Saiva Tirumurai. He was one 
f the three thousind Tillaiv&l antanar. When Umapati was 
oing to the temple with temple honours to do puja for 
ataraja, he heard a remark from a passer-by' One blind 
/ day was riding on a dead wood ' (patia Kattaiyi? 
ikaikwudu ekudu) Umapati, on hearing this, realized that 
le passer-by was the preceptor for whom he was waiting 
I along. Maraijnana Sambandhar wanted to test the ripe- 
ess of his disciple and drank the rice gruel which was 
eing used for the warp. Um%>ati unhesitatingly drank the 
ruel which trickled down from his master's fingers. Marai 
ana Sambandhar then initiated Umapati into Ihe Saiva 
Jth and taught him the Sivajnana Bodham. Umapati 
as ostracised by the priest community of Chidambaram 
>r his unconventinal act. When Umapati's turn to do puja 
ame, he went to the temple, but was prevented by the 
iest community from entering the temple- Umapati returned 
his mutt at Korravangudi and did puja mentally, 
is said that the priest could not find the l^nga in the 
mple on that day and were instructed by God to allow 
mapati, to do puja. Since Umapati came to live at 
orravangudi he came to be known as Korravangudi 
mapati or Eorrangudi UmSpati- 16 Um&pali eulogises the 
eatness and compassion of preceptor and describes his 
^counter, 'seeing others paying their respects to him, I 
so did. By mere look he destroyed all my demerits and 
>nds at one stroke and made me realize the lie (empty 
ing) that !s family life and riches'- 17 From this account 
e may infer that Umapati was first the householder and 
? became an escetic. After the dlksa, he realized that 1 
Uy the sacred ash, the form of Siva and &iva puja 
e of value* There is a shrine over the remains of Umapati 
Eorrangudi, a few miles away from Cidambaram and 
sited by pilgrims even today. It is also said that the 
mple flag, which refused to go upwards, was hoisted by 



Umapati- The flag song (Kodilckavi) ends with the refrain 
to the effect that he hoisted the flag. This may be inter, 
preted either literally or esoterically^ 19 Tradition records 
another incident connected with Perran Samban. It is said 
that Perron, an untouchable, who was a brahmin in his 
previous birth, served Um&pati by providing fuel to the 
mutt. 20 Lord Siva gave a letter of introduction to Perran 
asking Umapati to give him immediate release in a dream* 
Perran Samban preserved the letter and one day he came 
late to mutt due to heavy rain- Umapati came to know of 
Perran and the letter, and gave him release by performing 
Satyomrvana d\k$a. It is also said that the wife of 
Perran compalained to the king about her husband's 
disappearance* When the king ordered an enquiry, Umapati 
Sivam made the tree which was watered by the consecrated 
water attain release immediately- This incident suggests the 
supernatural power of Umapati and there is no reference 
to this in Umapati's writings- 
It is unfortunate that we do not have a good biography 
of Um&pati who himself has written the, biographies of Saiva 
saints in the Tiruttondcir purana saram. Consequently we do 
not know anything concretely about the life and activities 
of Umapati- We are certain of his date. We are in a position 
to state that he must have lived between 129C A- D. 1340 
A- D. 2i This is based on a date mentioned in his work 
Sankarpanirakarauam which states that this book was approved 
by scholars in the year 1235, Salivahana year (131 3 A. D.). 
We are able to fix the dates of compositions of other^ 
Siddhanta texts more or less with the help of this date. 
Umapati must have studied the Vedas, the Vedangas and the 
SaivaQamtts traditianally* 22 Whenever he refers to the 
Vedas, and the Agamas, he refers to th*m as works of God- 
The study of the Vedas, the Agamas and the principal 
commentaries on the Brahma Sutras enabled him to criticise 
other schools from Saiva Siddhanta point of view. His main 



contribution is to present Saiva Siddhanta as the essence of 
V^danta. 23 That he understood these systems correctly is 
evident from his exposition of other systems in The 
Sankarpanirakaranam. It is to be noted that Um^pati is also 
well - versed in Tamil literature. He wrote the Tiruvarutpayan 
in the metre of Trukkural. 24 He quotes Tirukkural verbatim 
in iheNenju Vidu tudu. He calls Tiruvalluvar 'the divine 
poet' and his words as 25 the words speaking the 
Truth in couplet 25* Umapati uses the ideas as well as 
expressions of Tirumur&i in his writings. This is evident 
from his arrangement of the topics in his Tevara ami murai 
tir&ttu,, where he classifies the Tevaram under the ten 
headings on the basis of the chapters given in the 
Tiruvarutpayan. Umapati Sivam wrote six works in 
Tamil viz/ Koih^ ur ^ am t Tiruttondar puran& saram, Tirumurai 
kfintfa puranam, Sekki&r puranam, Tiruppadikkovai anc j 
Tiruppadikakkovi. Koilpuranam speaks of the history of 
Cidambaram and the greatness of Nataraja and of his 
grace. This work emphasises the imporatance of the sacred 
ash and also deals with carya, kriya yoga and jnana. 
Umapati says that formless Siva assumes-form and 
the dance of Siva signifies the five cosmic functions- 
Umapati was influenced by Sekkl/ar who emphasised 
the greatness of Grace and its functioning in various ways- 
Umapati wrote exclusive work Tiruttondar purana saram 
on the essence of the Periyapuranam. TimmuroA Kanda 
varalaru speaks of the recovery of the Tirumurai 
in the Cidambaram Temple. Tiruppadikkovai gives 
the account of the decads of poems (padikam) sung by 
the Tevaram authors in praise of the holy centres 
mentioned in Tiruppadikkovai. In these two books 
Umapati Sivam follows Sekkilar very closely. 27 

Sivaprakasam consists ot one hundred stanzas and is 
divided into two parts podu and unmai. The first fifty ver- 
ses dealing with podu give an account of the embodied 
condition of the soul and the remaining verses explain the 



part i-e., the released condition of the soul. Uma- 
pati first uses the term SaiVa Siddhanta in Sivaprafasam." 8 
Tirumwlar also made use of the term Siddhanta earler, 
but he did not use the term 'Saiva' along with Siddhanta. 
Aru/uandi also uses this expression I'Siddhantam' j n the 
sense that it is the essence of, Saivagamas. 29 The term 
'Saiva Siddhznta' occurs in the inscriptions of Raja 
Simha I (690-715 A.DJ who is described as a follower of 
Saiva Siddhanta. 30 Among the Siddhanta Sastras, &ivaprakasom 
is the earliest book that contains the full expression 
'Saiva Siddh*nta\ Umapati not only first used the 
expression, but also called it as 'the essence of Vedanta'- 
&ivaprafasam is the handbook of Saiva Siddhanta explain- 
ing the tenets of the system and also meeting the criti- 
cisms raised against it by the other schools, both inner 
and outer. 

We have the following commeataries on ^ivapraktfsam. 

1. llakkanam Cidambaranada Munivar 
(edited by K. Nagaiinga Munivar 1 891) 

2. Madurai Sivaprakasar- 

(edited by Saiva Siddhanta Maha samajam 1940) 

3. Cintanai Urai 

(edited by Saiva Siddhanta Maha samajam 1934) 

4. K- Subramanya Pillai (Paraphrase, 
(Reprint, Dharmapura ^dhlnam 1962) 

5. T, A. Srinivasacaryar (Paraphrase 
Tiruwvadu turai /IdhTnam 1960^ 

6- T- S. Meenaksisundaram Pillai 

(Paraphrase, Tiriiv/avadu turai ^TdhTnam 1967) 

7. Tiruvilangarn of Ceylon 1918 

8- Tiruvufukamamalai Adigal 1908. 

9. Jnanaprakasa swamigai of Tondaimandala ^TdhTnam 1981, 



English renderings 

1. five- H.R. Hoisington. The Journal of 
American Oriental Studies. 1854* 

2- K- Subramanya Piilai (Edited by 
Dharmapura JfdhTnam 1945- 

Punkur Sivaprakasar's &ivapraka$a Jckattaj&i deals with tne 
tenets explained in the Sivaprakasam. Kavai Ambalava/ia 
Munivar, a devotee o* Dharmapura ^TdhTnam and a disciple 
of Vef/iambalavaraa Tambiran wrote the gist. koju. Madurai 
Sivaprak^sar gives great importance to this gist and men- 
tions this under each Sivaprak#sam stanza. 

Tiruvanitpayan 

The term 'Tiruvarutpayan* means the fruit of Divine 
Grace. Tiruvalluvar does not deal explicitly with jnana or 
moksa aspect of the four Hindu ideals, viz; dhawna, artha t 
K&ma and moJcsa. Umapati's Tiruvarutpzyan se*ks to expoun 
th 3 jfiana aspect by explaining Divine Grace. Umapati explains 
the essence of Saiva Siddhanta in the Tiruvarutpayan, view- 
ing it from the characteristic angle of Grace. Umapati has 
ten chapters in this book and they are 1 . The nature of 
God. 2. The nature of soul. 3. The nature of an^a (which 
is a principle of darkness) 4. The nature of Grace- 5. The 
nature of the Preceptor as the incarnation of Grace. 6* The 
way of knowing reality. 7- The manifestation of the essen- 
tial nature of the soul. 8- Methods of obtaining bliss- 
9. The significance of the five letters (PaM>c%k$ara) and 
10.The nature of tfvan muUus. 



Saiva Siddhanta deals with the three realities viz., 

and pasa, Umapati developed these three into six. 31 . 
They are 1- The one and only God. 2- the many souls 



10 

mzv%. On the basis of this couplet Sivajaana 
Yogin classifies religions as inner' and 'outer' ones- Those 
who accept the six categories, are the innermost schools 
and those who do not accept it, form the outer religions 
viz-, 1. Innermost. 2- Inner 3- Outer and 4. Outermost- 32 
Fn short, the Tiruvaru\payan deals in detail with grace 
and the importance of the sacred five letter mentioned 
briefly in the &waprakasam- 

Vina Venba consists of 13 verses and the fast verse 
emphasises the importance of this work* Umapat* Sfvam? 
says that if one does not understand the inner 
meaning of this book, one will be in the position, 
of a dumb man who is unabfe to express the contents of 
one's dream/ 5 In other words this work enables a person, 
to understand and express clearly the spiritual truths- This 
work may be compared to the Irupairupahdu of Aru/nand* 
Sivam. Some very important questions are raised in the 
book. Light and darkness are opposed to each other and 
cannot stay together. How do God and ignorance find 
place in the individual soul ? The first 12 verses which 
deal with important questions form the basic teachings of 
the school. The eighth and the tenth verses of the Sivajnana 
Bodham and Vin%. Venba speak of preceptor and advaita respecti- 
vely. But this does not mean that the two works expound 
the system in the same order It appears that the Vina Venba 
is composed for the sake of those who have studied the 
three basic texts of the system viz. S^ajnana Bodham- 
&ivajn%na Siddhiyar and &ivapraJcasam. The important contri, 
button of this work is to explain how Saiva Siddhants 
reconciles the various difficulties in philosophic investigation* 

Porripdhrodai : Contains ninety five couplets and a 
Vejfba. at the end- This work emphasises the importance 
of Grace. Siva performs the five cosmic functions out of 
His grace. Grace provides fields of experiences to the sou-li 



> that the souis may bs finally freed from bondage. When 
le soul attains spiritual fitness, Grace descends upon the 
nils through the preceptor who, according to Saiv/a Siddhanta 
Siva Himsalf, Umapati devotes two works viz,/ Porripah- 
*dai and Nefijuvidutudu to stress this pcint and attributes all 
its of Siva to Marai jfiana Sambandhar, his preceptor, 
lis book may be compared to Porritiruvagava-l of Tintvacagam 
hich also glorifies the preceptor and grace- 

KodiJcJcavi \ Contains four Verses, one in kattaiai 
littiirai and the rest in veiiba metres. The first verse 
eaks of the inherent Ignorance of the soul. Though light 
d darkness reside in the same place, darkness cannot 
velop light. On the other hand, light destroys darkness' 31 
e real knowledge is within, but because of Impurity the 
ul is unable to know it. The second verse speaks 
efly of the nature of God, sakti f soul; the Jcevala and 
tola cwastkas. The third verse explains the odvatta rela- 
nship of God with soul. This verse describes God as 
nscending speech and mind and yet He is associated 
eparably with the soul. The last verse deals with the 
ities of Pane%k$ara. This is uttered in three ways. 

1 . Sivflya namah. (five letters) 

2, Om ham haum Sivaya namah (eight letters) 
3- Om nama .Sivayah (six letters) 

The flag symbolises the starting of something important. 
j hoisting of the flag here denotes the making up of 
> r s mind to turn to spirituality and persevering steadfastly 
the end. Umapati says that all actions have /ndna for 
ir purport. This hoisting of the flag also is designed to 
i the soul to the path of knowledge. The ceremony of 
sting a flag signifies the initiation of the disciple into 

spirtual path which ends in nirvana djksa. This 
^ consists in cleaning the dirt of one's past deeds 



12 

through srx adhvfis, which Is followed by the mstructforT 
of guru, who is none orher thar* Siva Himself. The 
significance of the ceremony consists in the individual 
attaining release through jnana by preceptor. 

Nenju vidu tndu : Tudu fe one of the minor literary 
forms developed in the mediaeval period it has for its 
theme the sending of a message, usually to one's lover, 
Umapati sends his message of devotion to his guru, 
Marai/nBwa Sambandhar. In this work he deafs with God's 
grace and His compassion towards the souls. He says that 
grace regulates all events of the worfd for the benifit of 
souls- The lover is compared to a king who has ten regal 
insignia- Umapati mentions the following ten insignia (39- 
79) : righteousness is His mountain ; bliss is His river ; the 
land which can not be reached by the Agamas is His coun- 
try ;Sivajftana is His city, Grace is His garland; Sfi&ft consis- 
ting of iccha, jnana and *n'#a are His horses ; knowledge 
is His elephant ; His banner is beyond the reach of the six 
religions and removes pain; the eternal sound is His 
drum; His reign extends beyond the world of Brahma 
and Visnu- This work emphasises the difference between 
God and sou! even though it stresses the eternality of 
both It also makes mention of the immanent ar>d transcen- 
dent aspects of Siva- 



Unmai neri vilaJckam ; This book deals with the 
which means ten steps of the spiritual progress- They are 
tattva rupam f tattva darsanam, tattva $uddhi, atma rupam, 
atma darsanam, atma suddhi, Sivarupam, &iva dar$anam 
&iva yogam and &iva bhogam. The first verse speaks of tattva 
rupam, tattva darsanam and tattva suddU. The second explains 
atma rupam, atma darsanam. and l&hna suddhi. The third verse 
expounds &iva rupam, the fourth explains &va darsanam. The 
Siva yoga is explained in the fifth verse and the last describes 
&iva bhog.a. 



When the soul knows that the thirty six Tattvas are 
3 evolute? ofwm, it istMvarapam. After knowing the 
tare of the tattvns, as jada or unconscious, when the 
>ul realizes that it is different from the tattvas, this state 
called tattoa dir$a n a m . The two states i.e.. tatova rtipam 
id tcUva datjanam culminate in tottva $ud&hi. When the 
u! is purified from its association with the evolutes of 
iva* It is tottv* juddhi. This purification takes place 
th the help of Grace, 

When the sou! destroys the evil effects of %nava and 
Jlizes that he could do so only with the help of Grace, 
jn the state of atma rtipam occurs. As a result of the 
struction of the evil effects of a$av a the 'l-ness' and 
/-ness" (ahanJcam and m&makard} get loosened and this 
atma darsetnam. Then his assertive intelligence is destroyed., 
d the soul is asked to practise 'Soham bhavana i. e .., 
itemplative identification in the form'! am Siva'. Due ,to 
f dissolution of pafa ahd contemplative identification with 
a, the soul enjoys bliss. At this stage, the soul must 
lize that the bliss which he enjoys belongs to Sakti and 

soul knows the basis of &akti \ e.., &iva. Then the 
fl surrenders his independence and action to those of 
a and this is atma fuddhi* 

The soul realizes that aU forms of the Lord Siva, 
ti, Nada r Bhindu are f orms Grace, which provides 
as of experiences i. e. , body, instruments and worlds to 

soul. Until the soul attains the state of iruvinaioppu 
J state of being indifferent to the fruits of actions) God 
:es the soul experience his karma S o that the Impurity 
:aining to the soul may be removed completely. Thus 

soul realizes that everything birth and death etc, is 
' due to Grace. This realization is called Sivarupam. 

soul must understand Siva's feet, His face and His crown, 
understanding of these three constitutes &iva dar$ana. 



When the soul renounces his cfaims of 'l-ness' and 
'my - ness" with the help of Grace, it sees parai as Siva's 
feet Giving up of claims Y and 'mine' he sees Siva 
everywhere and he knows Siva's face as happiness- As the 
soul sees Siva everywhe/e, he einjoys the bliss of Siva 
which transcends mind and speech and this is seeing Siva's 
crown as bliss- Umapati Sivam says that the soul must not 
turn to thirty six tattvas at this stage- He must also avoid 
the practice of pasu jnzna, thinking in the from 'lam Siva'- 
In short, in &iva dar^ana, the soul merges so deeply in Siva 
that he forgets his separate identity and worships Siva. 

when this highest state is disturbed and if the soul in; 
that condition sees an object, he will think of that object 
as as at ^ as an object of non - value- The soul must know 
the importance of grace and thereby realize or become 
aware of the existence of Siva. In this state of Siva yoga,, 
the soul is one with grace. The consciousness of Siva so- 
fills the soul that he sees Siva everywhere. The soul realizes 
that the individual who forgets Siva, another who remembers 
Siva, the consciousness - energy of the soul and the experience 
of Karma are under the influence of Siva and nothing wilj; 
act without getting initiative from Him- The highest 
experience that the soul can get is the experience of bliss 
which is called Siva bhoga. This occurs as the culmination, 
of the previous nine steps when the soul renounces all 
his claims and is wholly under the influence of Siva. When 
the soul has the true knowledge of Pati, pa$u and pa fa 
the experience of &ivabkoga is possible and in this stage, 
afl obstacles which stand in the way of the soul unitng 
with Siva, are destroyed. 

According to tradition, this book also was written by 
Umapati Sivam. Some scholars consider unmai neri viialcJcam 
to be the work of SiJeaii Tattavu nadar. This view was 
first expounded by the late S. Anavarada vinayakam Pillai in- 



second edition of Siddhanta Astros - mulumum 
in 1934. He argues for this on the basis of a v 
*ennum aruintil', which is found not only in Cintanai I 
but also at the end of the Sivajnana Bodha commen 
(of the Govt- MSS Library). This verse according to 
late Pillai, is also found in the copy available \ 
Tiruvarur Somasundara Desikar of the llakkana Vijakl 
family. But Mr Pillai himself admits that there is 
emphatic proof to maintain this stand except the commen 
of Unmai neri - vijakkam, which maintains that this v\ 
has followed the steps of Tuga{wu Bodham written 
Sik^/i Cirrambala nadigal. 

It may be that Tattuvanadar also might have writter 
work with the same name i. e , umai nenvi/~kkam, In th 
days, many authors brought out their works under the ss 
name. For example, we find two Paramarthasara in Sa 
krit ; one belongs to the Advaita school and the ot 
belongs to the Pratyabljfia school- It Tamil also, 
have three works 'Dasakaryam* included in Pandara as> 
one by Ambalavana Desikar, the other by Ddksinamu 
Desikar and the third by Swaminatha Desikar (all the th 
scholars belongs to Tiruvavadu turai Adhinam-) We have 
note that these work were written in palm leaves < 
preserved by many generations. There was every Possibi 
of one palm leaf getting mixed up with the other- Th 
is also another ground to argue that this book was writ 
by Umapati Sivam. Unmai neriviiakkam is placed in ' 
editions between Nenju vidu tfidu and Sankarpanirakaraq, 
both works were written by Umapati. If this be 
were written by Tattuvan<3dar, it would not have be 
placed between these two works. Thus until contra 
evidence is advanced, we may take Umapati to be 1 
author of eight works including Unmai 



ScLnkarapanirakaranam : Umapati mentions and critich 



16 

2. AiJcyavada 3 Pa$anavada 4. Bhedvaada 5. Sivasamavada 
6. Sarikarantavada 7. Isvara aviJcara vada Q. Nimitta Karana 
pjrinama v&da and 9. Saiva vada. He has arranged the 
systems in such a way that we have not only criti- 
cism of a former by a latter school in the orde r 
mentioned but also an advance by tha latter on the 
former. Aru/nandi Sivam dealt with in the parapaksa O f the 
Sivajnatia Siddhiya? the systems which were heterogeneous 
in nature- Umapati Sivam following him expounds the innc* 
schools of Saivism which were homogeneous in nature 
except mayavada and aikyavada. M&yavada is so called 
because it uses the term 'Mays.' to account for the appear- 
ance of the world We have to note the treatment of maya 
in advaita Vedanta o f Sankara and in Saiva Siddhanta. 
as expounded by Sri Sankara is indescribable (aniryan- 
whereas in Saiva Siddhanta it is a derivative 
power of Siva. It is also one of the three bonds and one 
of the categories of the system (TVP 52)- Arulnandi explai- 
ned may&vjda jn parapzksa of the Siddhiyar. Umapatj 
also explains this in SanJcarpanir^aranam knowing the impor- 
tance of this system and terms Saiva Siddhanta as the 
essence of Vedanta. 

Apart from these devotional and expositinal work in 
Tamil, Umapati wrote Pauslcarabhasya, Sataratna Sangrah, 
Kunjitanguistvam etc. Pauskara Ih&sya is considered to be 
the most outstanding of all the commentaries available 
in Sanskrit on Saiva Siddhanta. The introductory part of 
this work maintains that the author is one of the santana- 
caryas. 

There are scholars who question this because it quotes 
Nyayamrta. (PB P. 519), a ' Madhava work belonging l to 
the sixteenth century. This was a commentary on one of 
the Agamas l which is 'general', as dealing with the state Of 
bondage, according to the Siddhantin's classification. This 
work contains the doctrines explained in the 



17 

and the only difference between the two is that the 
Pauskara bha$ya is polemical in nature- 

Sataratna Sahgrah : It is an anthology of Agamic texts 
complied by Um^pati. He has also written a iucid comentary 
on this called Satarantnollenkhin^ 1 . Umapati selects 100 texts 
and this gives the quintessence of Agamanta. 

Kunjitangristvam and Natarajadhavani mantrastvam are the 
devotional works praising the Lord Nataraja and His raised 
foot* 8 . Potanjala sutra by Umapati gives in detail the nitya 
and naimittika puja vidhi to be .observed in the Nataraja 
temple. It is said that Umcpati wrote commetnaries on 
Sahasranamam, Sri Rudra CamaJcam and V&yu samhitfi and a 
minor commentary (tiha) on Yantra vidanam. 

Umapati's jndna caridai contains five small works- They 
are 1. Juznapujdlcarnam This deals with the necessity of 
Kriy% even for one who has attained the sivajn&na j n 30 
verses- 

II) Jnanapuja contains 18 stanzas and explains the methods 
of worship to be adopted by the Jlvan muktas. This is 
also called jnana puj% vidhi. 

l\\) Jnzna djJcsa vidhi deals with the theme of initiation 
in eight verses. This is also known as Jnwa dJJckai tiruvir- 
uttam. 

ivj Jnanantiyetti - consists two stanzas. This work is meant 
for the householder who also happens to be 



y) Bojana vidhi - dea |s with the following themes - alms 
(WutoS), offering alms to God, eating arecanut after food 
and meditation. This jnzna caridai has been commented 



18 

Madura! Sivaprak&sar gives the history of Sivaprakasam 
in his introduction to the commentary. Srikantha Parrnesvara 
taught Pati, pa$u and paja contained in the jnana kznda 
of the Saivagamas to Sri Nandi Deva. Sri Nandi Deva 
taught this to Sanatkumara who in turn taught this to 
Satya jnana Darsini. Satya jnana Darsini taught this to 
Paranjothi Munivar who again taught this to Meykadar. 

Meyka^dar wrote the &iv&jnana Bodham. Aru/nandi Sivam 
studied the &vo jnana Bodham and wrote the &tw/5aw* 
Siddhiyar. a verse commentary on the &ivajnzna Bodham. 
Umapati Sivam found that these books were clear only to 
persons of ttvratara jaJcttniptfa and wrote the &ivapraksisam. 
He wrote this book with the help of the above two books* 
Saivagamas and Grace which helped him by giving directions. 

Madura! Sivaprakasar takes &uiv&gamas to be the original 
work (mudal nul) and &ivajn%na Bodham and Sivajnana 
SiddUyar to be the vafi nul (books based on an original-) 
Usually the Sivajfana Bodham is considered to be the original 
work and the Sivajnana SiddUyar is termed as the vu/t nul 
and Siva-prakasam is considered to be the carbu nul a work, 
drawing from both the original and that depends on the 
original- Madura! Sivaprakasar also takes the Sivaprakasam 
to be the c%rbu nul and he confirms this by quoting a 
verse from Jnana d\kkai tiruviruttam. The commentator quotes 
the verse (Q$55frb Qu/r^sfr. ^nr. g/rsi9<?jr WPLJ 65) which 
states the definition for the original work 89 . This verse 
states that the work of God who has spotless knowledge 
due to His transcending Karma t j s the original work. Following 
this verse, Madurai Sivaprakasar says that ^aivagaams are 
the original work, because Lord Siva is their author. He 
quotes two verses from Nannul 1 , and 8 for the definition 
of Vj$ nul and 



The swtra (Nannul 7) for Yap nul states that the work 
of a person who, after having studied and accepted the 



original work, adds some important differences which are 
accepted by the learned scholars, is called Va$ nul. The 
sutra (NannulS) for carbu nul states that the work of a 
person who accepts the important teachings of the mudal 
nul and vatf nul, and also adds certain significant differences, 
is called c%rbu nul. 

Since the Sivaprakasam is considered to be the c%rbu nul, 
it is interesting to note the important points contributed by 
Um5pati to the Saiva Siddhanta system- Umapati clearly says 
that Saiva Siddhanta is the essence of Vedanta (SP7). By 
Vedanta is meant here the up*ni$ads t not any particular school 
of thought. It was again Umapati who posited two approaches 
general and specific (podu and unmai). This classification 
into general and specific helped the later writers to look 
at the whole system in a new light and following the lead 
given by Umapati, the later writers commented upon the 
earlier works like the Swajr&na Bodham, Inspired by the 
legacy of Meykandar, Umapati was conscious that he was 
adding certain new points- In the preface to the Sivapraka$am 
he says, whatever is old cannot be deemed good (on 
account of its antiquity alone) and whatever book comes 
forth today cannot be judged ill because of its newness 
(SP 12)-* 1 We may remember that it was only Umapati 
who gave the whole list of the preceptors of Saiva Siddhanta 
(SP 5) and wrote five invocatory verses invoking the grace 
of the Lord Vinayaka, Lord Nataraja, Goddess Sivakami and 
Lord Subhramanya. Umapati declares that he follows the 
elders and on the basis of their teachings and with the 
help of Grace that dwells in him, he tries to write the 



Madurai Sivaprakasar holds that Umapati adds certain 
significant points in three places and quotes the Nannul 
verse 8 in three places in his commentary. 43 Aru/nandi Sivam 
deals with the treatment of feuddha maya in the first 



22 



Thus according to the author of Cintanai Urai, 
is the content (M//#rai) of Sivaprakasam- 45 According to this 
commentator, Meykandar explains the three important aspects 
of dasokayyayn i.e., atma dar$anam t %tma sitddlii and &tina 
l%bham jn the eighth verse of the Sivajiiana Bodham. 
According to him, the phrase' g?toq<su CajL_/f ) 63T 

deals with aima darsanam, the phrase' 
ei/cEcSsffflsb s_6WTfl'c52356i5 ) LL(7J denotes atmo- &uddhi 
and the phrase ^^B^^/LD ^^srs^L^u^syr ^psvr &y)so Q&ggjGLD' 
explains atma labham, jn the same way Arulnandi Sivam's 
phrases' gittresPiu eznsiJibL/eo CCQJL./T 



^r' deal with the same three aspects 
mentioned above respectively. 

Umapati must have expanded the seven aspects viz., 
tattva r-iipam, tattva darsanam, tattva &uddhi t atma rupam, atma 
darsanam, atma suddhi, and atma labham into ten aspects by 
expanding atm& labham into Siva, Tupa f Siva darsana, Siva yoga 
and Siva Vhoga in unmaineri viiaJclcam. Whether Umapati is 
regarded as the author of unmaineri vilaJcJcam or not this 
much is certain that he is the first preceptor who gives 
importance to dasdkaryas in his works in explaining the 
spiritual progress of the soul- 

Umapati has a unique place in the spiritual line of 
preceptors, Umapati's disciple was Aru/namaccivayar, whose 
disciple in turn was siddar Sivaprakasar. His disciple 
Namaccivaya nwtigal was the founder of the Tiruvavadi turai 
adhlnam. Another disciple of Maraijnana Sambandhar was 
Maccuccettiyar. The eighth generation of his disciple was 
Guru jnana Sambandhar, who was the founder of the 
Dharmapura ^dhlnam. The tradition gets institutionalized at 
this stage of development. The doctrine is preserved and 
propogated by these institutions. These two adhtnams mark 



23 



the beginning of what is called the Tradition of Initiate 

(Abkiseka paramparai), 

We have to note that Meyka^dar was the link between 
the celestial chain (ahaccandanam) and exterior chain 
(puraccandanam). In the same way Umapati was the link 
who connected the exterior chain and the institutional One. 



GOD (PAID 

Umapati Sivam uses two terms to denote God le., 
Tarcivam and Ta^param t Ta^cfvjm literally means that Sivam. 
Madura! Sivaprakasar splits the word into tar + Sivam i.e., 
Sivam that is self-existent without any modifications, while 
the author of Cintanai Urai takes Ta^civam to mean Suddha 
Sivam. 1 While Tapivam comes in the thirteenth verse, 
Ta^param and Ci^param occur in the eighlieth verse, which 
describes the jagraflta state. Cintanai Urai and Madurai 
Sivaprakasar agree in holding that Tarparam denotes Sivam 
and Cirparam denotes the grace of the Lord. 2 

The self-existent Sivam is the divine ground whose 
essence may be described as unconditioned Being, independent 
consciousness and infinite i.e, unlimited bliss. This is Sivam 
or Tardvam which has no modifications and this is the 
essential definition of God. 3 When Sivam is associated with 
the souls and when it helps the souls, It is called Sakti. 
The same Sivam considered in relation to the cosmic 
functions is called Pati, the Lord. God acts through His 
Sakti with which He is integrally associated. Sakti is of 
the nature of an unlimited character of desire (iccha), pure 
knowledge (Jnano) and an unlimited freedom of act (kriya)* 

The four vedas and twenty eight Agamas reckoned as 
many works deal with the concepts of God, bound souls 
and bonds- 4 (Pati f Pasu and pasa). Pati is the highest 
among the three categories. 5 Pati is beyond the material 
distinction of form and no form and it has no quality or 
mark The author of Cintanai Urai raises the question when 
these two qualities are shared by Pati with the souls, 
what is the importance of Pati over souls ? G Umapati Sivam 



answers that Pati is not touched by the Impurity 
and is one, while the souls are many and are affected by 
the Imp'jrity- Then another question arises, when God is 
one and eternal, pzsa is also one (understood in a collective 
sense for the three bonds) and eternal, what is the 
superiority of Pali over Paso. ? U napati Sivam replies that 
when pasa obstructs the intelligence of the souls, Pati 
removes the obstruction and manifests knowledge. Pati is 
changeless and formless; its form is biiss and is indispensi- 
ble for the w^rld of souls as wall as of objects. 7 (Cetana 
prapanca and acetana prapanca). Pati is the final goal of 
the right-minded and manifests itself in the smallest of the 
small and is the biggest of the big- 8 Here we are reminded 
of the passage of the Ka\ha upanisad which records, 



anor anly^n mahato mahlyan, 

jantor nihito guhayam: 

tarn akratuh pasyat? vlta-soko 

dhatu prasadan mahimanam atmahah . 

S. Radhakrishnan gives the following translation : 

'Smaller than the small, greater than the great, the 
self is set in the heart of every creature. The unstriving 
man beholds Him, freed from sorrow Through tranquillity 
of the, mind and the senses (he sees) the greatness of the 
self/ Pati is self-efful-gent andHs named Sivam by men 
of clear wisdom. 

It is the notion of God as endowed with will that 
contains the answer to the question how God who is 
essentially transcendent, could yet be conceivably the Lord 
that performs the cosmic function i.e.. Pati God considered 
with reference to creatures with whcm. He is related 
intimately (advaita) is will (Sakti). The essence of God not only 
being but also will., so that numerically speaking, God is both 
one and not one 9 . This is one of the important points about the 
nature on Godhead introduced by Meykandar. It is because 



26 

of the fact that dynamic element of will is in the being 
of God, God could be conceived as performing cosimic 
functions. While Meykandar and Arulnandi Sivam following 
him explain the concept of Sakti at some length, Umapati 
Sivam brings in Sakti in the context of explaining how God 
who is transcendent, assumes personality out of His own 
freedom and performs the offices of creation, maintenance 
etc, Umapati explains the concept of Sakti in the seventy- 
fifth verse of the Vernal (Special) chapter, dealing with the 
free state of the soul after the impurities are removed. 
He says that the light of pure knowledge in God is called 
His power i.e., Sakti. Without God that power does not 
stand alone. Just as the sunlight dispels darkness and shows 
the sun to us, so the light of Divine grace dissolves the 
base bonds of darkness and delightfully shows the supreme 
Being to the freed souls- 

Following the Sivajnzna Siddhiyw, speaking from the 
perspective of the world, we may state the truth in the 
following manner: there can be no life in the world (bhoga) 
or life of spirit (moksa) for souls without Divine will, 10 
There are eternal 'precesses' in the Divine Reality traceable 
as differentiation of one Divine power. Divine will like the 
authority of the state is central. It is freely differentiated 
according to the different activities for which it is required. 
Likewise in the reality of God, there is one Central Divine 
Function which is ultimate (pat at) j n nature. 11 This function 
is differentiated as affection (icchz) knowledge (Jnana) and 
action (briyz) j n response to specific requirements. God in 
contact with these powers of sakti takes up the holy forms 
of grace, and initiates the five - fold - cosmic functions in 



a sequence. 12 



This 'thegonic' process of divine manifestation Is 
described in the Sivajnana siddhiyar as divine genesis and 
divine drama- ''As one actor plays the part of many 



27 



aracters such as Havana, Rama etc. , so the Supreme 

e works in all these forms and yet remains one and 

changed- All these forms ara His Sakti- He and His 

kti are related as the tree and its inner soiid core- 13 

lajnana Siddhiyar also explains this by giving an analogy. 

st as the crystal appears as the various colours reflected 

it, yet remains unchanged, so God manifests Himself 

variously as His Sakti forms and remains pure and one. 

cannot be perceived except when He manifests HimseP 
His Arul Sakti- Concrete operations of different levels 
i orders are the Generalisations of this divine drama, in 
ich the mono - actor assumes the different roles and 
nes, embodying differences of the functions of Sakti. 

have to note the important pDint here that Godhead, 
itself beyond all distinctions of personality freely assumes 
sonaSity- This is indicated by saying that His assuming 
sonality is through nothing other than His own power. 

In view of the fact that Saiva Siddhanta does not 
spt the doctrine of incarnation, how are we to unders- 
the manifestation of Siva as guru to the matured 
Is ? Since God is omniscient and omnipotent, He can 
* any form He pleases and the substance which constitutes 
form is His own cit-$akti. Sivajuzna Siddhivar 0-47) says! 

form is love ; His attributes and knowledge are love : 

five functions are love ; His organs like arms and feet 

and His ornaments like the crescent moon, are also 

i- These things are assumed by t!i3 ever-pure God, not 

His own benefits but for the benefit of mankind' 14 . 

"he essential nature of God consists in freedom and that God 
ytally unlike the things of the world. Ail things of the world 
3ither with form, or without form, or conceivably having and 
having form. Objects like earth which have form (rupd) 
lot become objects which have no form (atupa). Afesa 
no form. If it comes to have form, it ceases to be 
&. Entities like rnoon which are characterized as form- 



formless Le-, (ruparupa) cannot become an entity which has 
no form (arupa) only or an entity which has form (ritpaj 
only. If it does so, it ceases to ba an entity characterized 
as ruparupa. 1 * The point to be noted here is that none of 
the objects in the world can change its own nature and 
assume the nature of another- Formless things cannot have 
form and vice versa. This is what we come across in 
experience. Whatever is experienced as this or that is 
determinate. When we predicate one quality of a thing, we 
exclude the possibility of a different quality being predicated 
of that thing. To know a thing in experience is to limit 
its nature. If God were formless, He also becomes limited 
like any formless object of experience like akasa and will 
cease to be God by becoming one object of experience 
among others. Saiva Siddhanta is very careful in defining 
the nature of Siva. The definition does not in any way 
limit the reality of God- Saiva Siddhanta admits that God 
is a person, but maintains at the same time that His personality 
is not conditioned by any factor, and that it is constituted 
by its own freedom. It holds that God performs comic 
functions, but maintains at the same time, that in performing 
them, He is formless, with form and both. It implies that 
the kind of form He assumes as required by His function 
's a case of freely assuming personality- It is this freedom 
to assme any and every form and no form that stands out 
as the differntia in the definition of the nature of God. 
We have to note here that this is not the case with souls. 
Souls are given forms by God in accordance with their 
karma. The karmic necessity is not to be found in God, 
who comes to help the souls out of His own Grace- Thus 
it is said that when He performs the five - fold activities. 
He takes the saka/a from, He is free to take any and every 
form that is required for the purpose. 

Now the doubt arises whether God will not be affected 
by the forms He takes. Umapati explains God's existence 



29 



as Freedom by distinguishing God as spirit from what is 
non - spirit i.e., Pasa and secondly God as Freedom is 
distinguished from what is not fres, viz., pasu. At the level 
of Pa$Q, there is no freedom. At the level of pasu there 
*s freedom but that freedom is limited by the soul's previous 
karma. At the level of Pati only, we have supreme autonomy. 
The distinguishing characteristic of spirit is its transcendence. 16 
Spirit transcends the finite structures of human experience, 
which is subject to the categories of space, time and thing- 
hood. 17 What is given to human experience, is by definition 
iJmred to the forms and categories of human experience* 
If it is here, it cannot be elsewhere ; if it Is this, it can. 
not also be that. This is the epistemological side of^ th 
finitude- 



We may consider the finitude from the side of ontology 
also. What is given to human knowledge as its object by 
definition, is again what has a beginning, middle and an 
2nd- Whatever is known as an object to a subject is sub, 
ect to the limitation of temporality. 18 Conversely we may 
;ay what is universal or eternal cannot be an object in 
Jemonstrative knowledge to a knowing subject- This is 
ixactly the characteristic of spirit- God is all pervasive and 
iternal. He has all forms, at the same time having no form 
i particular. God is unique in being beyond the compre- 
ension of all others- 13 God is the sole Lord whom over- 
whelming likes and dislikes cannot reach. 20 In other words 
od cannot be attained by human beings who have strong 
kes and dislikes* They are carried away by their likes and 
islikee with the result that lacking spiritual poise, * they 
3come incapable of attaining God.' 21 God is the life inse- 
irable from all that lives- These characteristics clearly dis- 
iguish God from souls* The souls have the ww/a vinai 
hich is the cause of the thr. e bonds, and which cause 
)@tition and aversion for the souls, thus involving the 
mis in the tedious circle of births and deaths. This 



vinoi does not affect God and therefore He can take up and 
energise for Himself any form He wills- 

This characterisation brings out God's transcedence. God, 
free from any thing empirical or phenomenal i.e., Nimalan, 
js not a thing but Being Itself. But another characteristic 
viz., His freedom to do or undo or do it otherwise is also 
equally evident from His nature as the agent performing all 
cosmic functions. It is this characteristic that explains how 
God unlike the creature can freely assume a personality as 
required by the offices of cosmic functions- 22 

Umapati does not deaf with the arguments for the 
existence of God elaborately,, while Arulnandi Sivam deals 
with the question in a detailed manner in the first and 
second sutras. Umapati however, gives the essence of 
these arguments in the verse beginning with 'Ulagamelam'. 
He says that God, the everfree (Nimalan) 2S is the causal 
agent of the universe. Though He is the causal agent, He 
is not affected by the universe, for He stands as the 
non-different ground of its existence- The world is a world 
of male, female and neuter/ or to be more specific of 
he, she and it- Because the world is presented as ar> 
object, it follows that it cannot be its own cause, but it 
must have been created at a time, conserved and absorbed 
at appropriate levels by one that transcends the objectified 
world. 24 The universe endures and undergoes involution in 
due process of time. Subsequently it evolves again on 
account of bonds from which souls have to be freed. 
Forms change, appear, move and disappear. There must be 
a cause for these changes. Umapati rejects nature, may a, 
karma and the individual souls as the ground of the universe- 
These are the species of bonds (pasa) or bound souls 
(paju). The cause of the world can only be the Lord i-e-' 
Pati who wholly transcends the sphere of bondage and 
bound* God and only God can be such world-ground- 



31 



Umapati Sivam discusses whether the world is its own 

:ause, or w>aya t individual sou! or Jcarma can be its cause 

ind rejects all these factors. The world is subject to the 

hree process of creation, preservation and destruction and 

hese process occur periodically and purposefully and not 

utomatically and capriciously, for the sake of individual 

ouls- These process are repetitive so that after the resolution 

f the world back to its cause, there is again creation. It 

s assumed here that the soul is from the beginning of 

me defiled by a connate spiritual Impurity The mala \$ 

lade fit for removal and this is called malaparipaga. By 

ataparipaga, jt is meant the progressive decrease of the 

ipacities of the mala to bind the soul. Umapati says that 

-creation after its resolution by God is occasioned by this 

ctor of Impurity. 23 It may be asked how by these changes 

the non-intelligent universe, the impure nature of the 

telligent souls can be removed in due course? It is anserwed 

this way that by these natural processes, the impure 

uls are made to pass through a variety of births and 

aths, transmingrating from one form of life to another so 

it Jcarma fructifies and is removed by experiencing the 

its. The fructification and removal of Jcarma js part of the 

der process of the fructification and removal of the original 

ourity i.e , mate. Nature and its processes are therefore 

ught to pass and utilized for the purpose of liberation 

souls by a gracious and omniscient. God- Maya is not 

Diligent and is fada ie, unconscious* It is said to be 

assumptive Energy of the Lord because He uses it in 

evolution of the world The individual also cannot be 

sidered to be the causal agent of the world. Individual 

Is though intelligent, cannot exercise their intelligence 

jpendently before taking on bodies and therefore they 

lot be the initial creative agent that cause the embodied 

tence. 26 Because of the beginningless defilement the 

vidual souls though they are infinite, become monadic 

rendered beginninglessly ignorant and impotent. In short, 



32 



they are fettered. One of the bound souls cannot be 
cause of the world, any more than one of the bonds cc 
be such a cause. 

Umapati considers the view of those who consider &# 
to be the causal agent of the world- He says that ka\ 
has its being only as generated by the thought that > 
thinks and the word that one speaks and the adion 1 
ensues as one acts 27 These are possible only after assum 
embodiment and not before it Action depends on emboc 
existence and cannot be prior to it. Moreover there ii 
reciprocal dependence between becoming embodied and do 
of deeds so that the cause has to be known from sor 
thing more basic than these two- 28 It has been shown t 
individual souls also are not the causal agent becaune so 
cannot act before they get bodies, instruments etc. , 1 
individual's intelligence cannot be exercised independer 
of embodiment. The result of the entire discussion is tl 
the cause of the world can only be one that tranecendsl 
bound souls and the bonds while at the same time standi 
non-different from them. 

Hindu theology assigns the three cosmic functions to t 
three Gods. 29 Af'er speaking of God, Umapati speaks 
His fnnctions as uniquely connotatiVe of His supremacy 
This is done by showing the relative superiority of t 
functions of universal destruction in relatioe to other functio 
of creation and protection. We have to note the point th 
this lead is given by Meykandar when he says 'Andamat 
in the first sutra of the Sivajnana Bodham. The function 
universal destruction shows the transcendent nature 
supremacy of the Lord- Aru/nandi Sivam also refers to th 
aspect of God when he says that they call Him as or 
of the devas, but they know not that Siva acts through i\ 
three Gods, the half of His body is Uma and that neith 
Visnu nor Brahma was able to fathom the great Jyoti < 
Light- And they neither know what form arose out of th 



33 



jat Jyoti- SI The episode of Brahma and Visnu searching 
His crown and feet and not finding them, proves that 
id is Vi$v&dhika. The same story which further states that 
> gods appeared from the great Light shows that God 
VisvaJcarana. The story which further states that the great 
ht subsided into the Linga form shows that God is 
aryamin. The puranic episode that Uma became half of 
j body shows that God is Vi&wr&pL In this context we 
st note the distinction between gmi Rudra, who is one 
ong the Trimurits and the Maha Rudra who is the creator 
the universe as shown by Sivajnana Munivar- 32 GuniRudra 
mot destroy the worlds above prakrti maya. The states 
laya, bhoga and adhiJcara are attributed to Siva and He 
called Siva, Sadasiva and Mahasvara. There is no difference 
ween these forms of the Lord- The saivagamas hold that 
;athe Rudra is the matured soul among the prajayakzlas. 
>ple mistake gun* Rudra for Maha Rudra. Sivajnana Munivar 
ss a long list of quotations along with the Siddhiyar 
ich we have quoted already 33 . All these quotations are 

ortant to the extent that Siva in His transendent aspect 
lot affected by the changes in the Universe, while at 

same time. Siva is the support for all the deities who 
y out the command of Siva. The Siddhantin's point is 
L Siva is supreme unlike other gods who desired to 

long by drinking nectar churned from the ocdan and, 
3n f poison came first, ran to Siva and b3gged Him to 
3 them, Siva took poison and, as ever, is birthless and 
thless- It is the lesser Gods who are subject to births 

deaths- It is this aspect of compassion i. e* , drinking 
;on to save all Jiving beings from deaths shows for all 
\ both the power and love of Siva- 

The idea of power associated with God is sometimes 
understood to mean only destructive power and hence 
, the benevolent is equated with Rudra, the destroyer, 
the critics say that the Siddhantin's conception of Siva 



34 



is aesthetically unsatisfactory and morally unedifying- A god, 
wearing garland of skulls and hissing snakes, dancing at. 
midnight on the cremation ground f surrounded by evil 
spirits, no doubt, is not likely to call forth religious fervour 
The saints ask us to ponder over the significance of the e 
features. There is again the idea that God has control over 
the destructive forces- The story of kali dancing with the 
Lord, illustrates the fact that God conquers the destructive 
forces which other wise would overwhelm the world. 
Manikkavacagar brings this out in the form of questions 
and answers- Question : The Lord of Tillai's court by cool 
palms girt whence honey drips, there entering does 
mystic dance perform : what's that my dear ? 
Answer : Had he not entered there, all the wide earth had 
quick become Abode of demons armed with flesh-transfixing 
spears. 34 The Lord is said to have danced Kali into refine- 
ment of character. 

Nicof Macnicol, after quoting from Maniakwacagar'-s 
Tiruvacagam says, It is hardly necessary to multiply illustras 
tions of the fervent spirit of this worshipper of Siva 35 . It 
is constant marvel to note how the heat of his devotion 
is able to transmute for its purpose of adoration even the 
repellent aspects of God. His descriptions of Him seem at 
times to touch the very brink of all we hate. This is he 
who 'wears the chaplet' of skull's, he is the maniac. 

'A dancing snake his jewel, tiger - skin his rob^, 
A form with ashes smeared he wears ? 

Though these aspects are repellent, we must also note 
the description of Siva as the beautiful one, the one of 
ravising beauty. He is described as the Beautiful one who 
conquered Yama, (the king of death) ; the Beautiful one who 
drank poison ; the Beautiful one who moves about the 
universe ; the Beautiful one who goes out to beg ; the Beauti- 



35 



ful one who overcame Havana ; the Beautiful one who rides 
the bull- 86 We have to seethe beauty of spirit in overcom- 
ing death, the beauty of love that suffers for others in 
drinking poison 37 , the beauty of accepting the offerings of 
people with all therir sins in going out to beg ; the beauty 
of divine might overcoming conceit in crushing Ravana with- 
out destroying him - and as soon as worship takes the place 
of Conceit giving him boons ; the beauty of divine governance 
of the moral relm in riding the bull of righteousness. 

What is really implied by this distinction between maha 
Rudra and g^ni Rudra and beween maka Rudra and the 
Trimurtis, is that Siva, the destroyer God stands distinguis- 
hed in terms of His function of destruction. Creation and 
protection are not coordinate with the function of destruc- 
tion- They are subordinated to destruction i-e. what is 
creation and destruction have their destiny in destruction 
while destruction is not consummated by yet another residual 
process- Even though the creative process ensuses again after 
dissolution- it is not by subordinating destruction. From the 
very sequence of recreation of the world after its dissolu- 
tion, the Saiva Siddhantin asserts the intrinsic priority of 
destruction over creation and protection- Destruction is the 
condition of the possibility of recreation i*e* what is not 
destroyed cannot be created- 

The question may arise as to what happens to Brahama 
and Vi?nu at the time of destruction 1 The answer is tha t 
they are also destroyed at the time of destruction- If they 
are destroyed, how can they be real creator and protector 1 
Siva is the only supreme Being and He confers His sovereign 
power and manifests on them the requiste ominipotence 
and omniprsence to perform cosmic operation 88 The know 
[edge, and power exercised by them are, therefore, only 
operative aspects of the knowledge and power that belong 
to one central knowledge. For once they achieve omniscience 
nad omnipotence they become muktas (The liberated) and 
cease to function as creator and preserver repectively. 



36 



ft may be asked why Siva should be said to be 
responsible for all these activities, when it is usual to speak 
of Brahma/ Visnu and Rudra as responsible for the three 
acts i e. t creation, protection and destruction. The Siddhanntin 
replies that Brahma and Visnu, on account of their merit, 
have been given the high authority of Siva to carry to out 
His mandate. Sivanjfiana Yogin in his commentary on the 
Sivajnana Siddhiy#r quotes the line from 
written by Umapati- '{&>&$$>&& && 
<&ujmn&* and claims that the Caturveda tatyurya Sangraha 
shows this to be the view of the Vedas, Puranas and 
hihasas* Sivagra Yogin, another communictator on the Siddhiyar 
quotes the Siddhiyar line '/B^JJB^SC^ Gu&th firj^jsn^d^rr 
jB^uufsT and expresses a different view. He says that the 
conative Energy of the Lord settles in Brahma, causing the 
predominance of activity. Contative and cognitive activity 
settle equally in Visnu causing a condition where intelligence 
and activity are equal to one another- In Kala Rudra, the 
cognitive Enegry alone settles and thus intelligence pre- 
dominates- These deities are responsible for creation, 
maintenance and destruction of the gross products Just as 
when red-hot iron ball is seen, what emits the glow is 
fire, and not the ball, the Trinity appear to function while 
in reality, they are controlled by Siva. SivajSana Yogin says 
that the supremacy of Siva is established by reason as 
well as verbal testimony. He quotes from Haradattacarya 
who gives twenty two reasons for the supremacy of Saiva 
(Mapadiyam pp. 80-81) 

Saiva Siddhanta holds that evolution and resolution 
being contradictory cannot both be natural- what is one/ 
should act uniformly, we now say that all these mutually 
contradictory functions arise from one God though mediated 
I>y other celestial beings. How can we reconcile the two? 
The explanation can be as follows : AH these processes do 
not introduce any difference i-n God because of His 



37 



transcendent nature, while all cosmic functions proceed from 
one ultimate source, is not to be thought of as the direct 
agent in respect of these functions- 39 In this respect we 
compare God to the sun. Because of sun's light, it is possible 
for the lotus flowers to blossom, to attain full bloom or 
wither, though the sun is not affected in any way by the 
activities of the flowers. Thus we may understand Siva to 
be the transcendent presence implied as the necessary 
condition for the cosmic operations of creation and 
conservation. 

Umapati next proceeds to describe the nature of the 
five divine functions of God- These functions which God 
has taken up are styled the play of His Grace and these 
are meant to lift the soul from the sea of misery to the 
seat of abiding bliss- Divine function is describable as sport 
in the negative sense that it is effortless and implies freedom 
of action. Sivajnana Munivar explains the nature of the five 
divine functions in the first adhikarana of the second Siftrct 
in the Mapadiyam. He raises the question for whom these 
five divine actions are performed, whether for God Himself 
or for others. These functions cannot have a final cause 
outside God's reality. If they are performed for the soul, 
then the qustion arises what is the relation between God 
and souls? 40 If the relation is abheda like gold and 
the ornaments made of gold, then the divine actions are 
for God Himself. If the relation is bkeda like light and 
darkness, then there is no connection between God and 
souls. If it is bheda-bheda like word and its substance, then 
it amounts to anekantavada. \f the performance of divine 
actions is not for God Himself, then the question arises 
whether these actions are useless like the actions of children 
or madmen. Even a wiseman like a king performs functions 
like hunting, gambling and also the ordinary functions of 
perspiration, sneezing etc- The commentator says that alt 
functions have some purpose- 41 Hunting by the king is for 



38 

the purpose of protecting subjects from wild animals, or 
to Keep himself active and thus overcome laziness, or for 
the sake of food- Gambling is to score a victory over the 
enemy in an indirect way and the acts like sneezing, 
perspiration take place for the protection of the body. Even 
the acts of children like building small houses with the 
sand have their ultimate purpose in training people for 
taking cara of the family when they assume responsibilities- 
Thus all actions have some purpose. Though God as an 
entity is different from souls, He is also one with the 
souls (*<uutjnr6b QevrfDmu) and does these functions for the 
souls- People quote a line from the Tiruvacagam which says 
that these actions are the play of God, the explanation of 
this line is that by play is meant, the ease with which 
God performs these actions- Manikkavacagar aiso says tha 
by these actions of God, souls are redeemed from their 
sins- Divine activity is Grace in the positive sense in tha* 
it reclaims the individual souls lost in the sea of suffering 
and making it an occasion for God to come and bestow 
Grace- 

Umapati Sivam explains the meaning of five divine 
functions. Dissolution has the aim of wiping out fatigues of 
birth and death- 42 Death is not simply to be seen from its 
negative side as mere deprivation of life- On the positive 
side, it removes the spiritual fatigue of the scui which is 
caught in the cycle of endless births and rebirths- Tiruvalluar 
says that death is like sleep and birth after death is like 
waking after refreshing sleep- 43 The question now arises 
is - in what sense is this death or destruction a spiritual 
rest, or renewal of life? Destruction of the body is effected 
so that the fatigues of birth and death may be relieved 
and the soul remain alone i e., without being associated 
with the instruments of may a and this basic condition of 
isolation of the soul precedes the life of empirical enjoyment 
and suffering. Therefore this condition of isolation constitutes 
the native existence of the soul/* To be resorted to this 



39 



condition intermittently in between enjoying the twin fruits 

of karma is a pre-supposition made with a view to account 

for the working of the law of karma. Consequences of 

deeds accumulate because of attachment and aversion and 

they must serially become 'ripe' for removal i-e-, their 

fruits must be experienced* Therefore as a kind of rest and 

preparation for experiencing new korma resolution of the 

world is indicated. This is a gracious act from both cosmic 

and individual points of view. If resolution is in the service 

of ripening of karma, recreation is for the eventual ripening 

of a mala.** Protection means making soul enjoy the fruits 

of karma so that karma may be totally removed and 

concealment is to make them turn to such enjoyment. The 

soul perissts in attaching importance to the pleasures of 

the world because of its ignorance of the true nature of 

things- It is due to its association with anava that it is 

misled into craving for the things that are alien to its nature 

as a spiritual being. The work of deluding the soul is for 

a certain period of time aided by Tirodhayi. This is really 

Siva &akti which hides from souls the true nature of the 

subjects of the world so that by experiencing them, maturation 

of mala may be effected- Its function though apparently 

chacterized by a negative aspect, has actually positive role. 

The soul which thinks mistakenly that the objects of the 

world are pleasure yieilding, finally concludes for itself that 

the pleasures derieved from them being evanescent, they 

are not worth while 64 . Further tirodh&yi enlightens the soul 

by making the Buddha tattvas, kala and other tattvas function. 

Without tirodh&yi the soul wilf not seek experiences which 

resulting in knowledge brings abaut maturation of mala. 

What is concealed or veiled by means of the function of 

conealment is God's own relity in the soul. We must 

understand the purpose behind the act of obscuration clearly- 

Obscuration is effected by God to veil the nature of the 

soul as cit and bring about indifference to furits of actions, 

good and bad, by first making them engage in action (or 



40 

as Sivagra Yogin puts it, to avoid the avoidence of karma) iT 
Grace is the grant of release and a!! activities are thus 
indicative of His Grace and there is no ground for attributing 
cruelty to Him- The saiva Siddhantin does not accept the 
view that destruction is due to tamos and obscuration is due 
to deceitfulness on the part of the Lord. The view regarding 
obscuration is that as the soul is intelligent, it will not 
engage in action to workout its karma and attain release* 
if its true nature is not veiled so as to make it engage 
in action- Thus tirobhxoa apparently defeats its own purpose. 
Obscuration is for removing obscuration once for all- So 
it is for the ultimate good of souls. Maraijnana Dcsikar, a 
commentator on the Siddhiyar says that tirobhxva does nc t 
hinder the soul, it hinders the hindrance to the soul- He 
tries to show in this way that Gad is not to be thought 
of as first bringing about obscuration and then removing 
it- Anava mala has fada saMi and this sakti loses its power 
wheri the sou! acts. nava>' might is brought out picturequely 
by Santalinga Swamica!- He imagines anava to be like a 
mountain of darkness which threatens the soul, exposes it 
to the contempt of five persons (the five senses) and 
chaiianges the Lord Himself- Anava js supposed to address 
the scul thus : 

I shall cause yeu to increse your stock of karma and 
plunge you into birth. If siva comes to save you, 1 shall 
test His bravery also ; whereupon the scul prays to the 
Lord, 'Having said these words/ anava disappeared from 
my view- Will you not be pleased to change- this state of 
affairs? In otherwords the evil that an<wa does is so stagger- 
ing that without God's grace, the soul can never hope to 
overcome it- When the evil effects of a&ava are reduced* 
the soul realizes its true nature and attains God. Thus Siva 
performs the function of obscuration for the benefit of the 
sou!- 



4! 

The first three actions i.e., origination, protection and 
destruction take place in the non, intelligent world. These 
are performed so that the evil effects of mala are destroyed 
and when this happens, God bestows release on the soul- 
The last two actions i-e< f obscuration and bestowing grace 
take place in the souls- Since obscuration can be included 
in protection and bestowing grace can be subsumed under 
destruction, the five divine actions may also be reduced to 
three divine actions- If we consider these five acts from 
another angle* we may include origination, protection and 
destruction in obscuration, because all these cause bondage, 
we may say thai God performs only two actions i.-e- y 
obscuration and bestowing grace. We may consider these 
sayings " 

The Supreme One who is bondage and release- 



Appar Tevaram. 

'Behold the supreme one who ordains, bondage and 
release. 



Tlrnvaeagam. 

The Supreme one who gives bondage are release 

Periyapuranam. 

God, can be approached in two ways- For example, we 
s @e the Sun as a dise- When we know the real nature of 
the Sun, we come to relalize that jt is many times bigger 
than the eerth- we cannot see the real nature of the sun 
with our eyes. We can understand it only with the help 
of our mind- In the same way we can deduce from our 
observation of the world that there must be one who is 
the cause of its origination/ maintenance and destruction- 
God performs the five divine functions for the sake of 
souls. This is tha gan^ral nature of Gad- (Quir^jstfiosbq) 
Thus whan Wd csnsider God with relation to tha world, it 



42 



is tatastha laksana (definition per accidens)- When we con- 
sider God by Himself i.e., without considering its relation 
to the world, souls etc.* it is Svarupj laksana (definition 
per essence^ Upaniwds say that $&t, &t, ananda are the 
svarupti Ijksaua of God- Since Saiva Siddhanta holds S^tkarya 
vada t sat here means the abiding existent, for there is 
nothing which does not exist- Cit means knowledge and 
ananda rmans bliss- What the upani?ads speak of as 90t t 
it and ananda is developed as eight attributes in the 
Saivagamas. They ar~ selfexistence, ommiscience, eternal 
knowledge unbounded grace, omnipotence, infinite bliss, 
purity and eternal freedom- Tiruvalluvar also speaks of God 
as endowed with eight attributes (e&gu&attan.) 

This 'general' and 'special nature' must be distinguished 
from general and specific nature expounded in epistemology. 
General nature in epistemofogy denotes the common nature 
belonging to all entities of the same category, while special 
nature belongs to one entity peculiary- This general nature 
in epistemology is also called *%.manya O r fati and special 
nature in theory of knowledge is 7#usa.* Siva/Sana IN/lunivaf 
says that we must clearly understand the gene.al and special 
nature expouned hf re- 
After considering the general nature of God, we must 
know the special nature of God* There is a brief reference 
to the special nature of God in Sivaprakzsam and we can 
understand this with the help of the sixth *$ru of the 
Sivajfiana Bodham where the special nature of God is 
explained in detail- The external objects and their charac- 
teristics come under the purview of human beings- The souls 
know tha objects as different from themselves and this 
intelligence is called finite-intelligence (a\avai arivu). Since 
this intelligence is limited by time and space, impure due 
to the contamination of mala, the knowledge got from this 
is also subject to limitation. Since God is pure without 
having origin and decay, God is not to be understood by 
this intelligence. 



Meykandar in the sixth 8 utra <nys, 

at_(/5 *&& : &iy srsfff^&r). yj-j^ words have to be 
arranged in such a way that we may u idetstand the meaning 
clearly as 'nnaruru eninasattu' 



If God is an object of finite understanding, He is 
also liable to destruction. We cannot say that God cannot 
be known in anyway by us, for He will be non-existent 
like the horns of a hare- So Maykandar hastens to add 
emn inmayin* after t un(truru <isathemn\ 



It is not correct to say that God does not exist, 
because we do not perceive Him* We must cultivate the 
required fitness to see Him. When in the darkness of night 
a person enters a beautiful pakce which contains good 
paintings and is of great architectural beauty, he cannot 
see those pictures and appreciate the beauty of the palace* 
In the same way when we are immersed in spiritual dark- 
ness, we cannot see Him who can be seen only through 
His grace- Sages who have experience of God give us 
certain suggestions as to the way in which we may approach 
Him, 50 Tirujnana Sambandhar says, 

*0o not by arguments and examples, indulge 

In excessive enquiry- Our lord is a blazing light 

Ye who wish to be rid of great sorrow live with 

your mind fixed on Him 

Come, ye holy ones, unto the lord*. 

At tie same time, the Saiva Siddhantin does not neglect 
the importance of reasoning. 51 Tirum#lar says, 

'Direct your thinking as far as it can go 
Express the Truth as best you can 
Even if denied, our lord verily exists, 
Seek ye the good well-tried path'. 

Appar also says that since he has experience of God, he 
cannot understand those who say that God does not exist. 



44 



To say that 'God does not exist' is possible for those who 
have no required fitness (i.e. meyxifvu) and not for those 
who have required fitness and actually experienced Him- 

aJL.L-.cS 



The Lord residing at Tiruvaiyaru, wearing the crescent- 
moon comes and resides in my Intelligence. When I experience 
this, can I say that 'He does not exist'- This expression of 
Appar may be compared to the passage which accurs towards 
the end of the Brahma . sutra bka$y a of Sankara. Sankara 
aaks : 'How is it possible for another to deny the realization 
of Brahman knowledge experienced in one's heart, while 
bearing a body?" 62 

God cannot be known by human intelligence alone and 
so He is called Sivam- At the same time. He is experienced 
by the sages, so He is called St. Thus God is described 
as Siva sat jn the Sivajnana Bodham. The sixth s#tra says, 

'if He is knowable, He is non-real ; if He is unknowable, 
He is non-existent. Therefore the truly wise say that He 
is neither but is spiritual Reality, know-able and unknow- 
able' :>s The Tamil word 'Cemporuf gives the meaning 
which is expressed by the Sanskrit word Sat t This can be 
known from the Tirukkural text (358). 



True knowledge consists in the removal of ignorance which 
?s the cause of births, and the perception of True Being 
who is (the bestower ot) heaven- 

Umapati Sivam says that without the instruments of 
knowledge, the soul cannot known anything- In the 



45 

vasthS the soul has not experience of objects, because the 
soul is not associated with the instruments in that state- 
Again Umapati says that with the help of instruments also, 
the soul cannot get knowledge about God, because the 
senses give only partial knowledge. With this partial know- 
ledge, we cannot hope to get knowledge of God. How can 
the individual realize Divine Wisdom? Umapati says that 
Divine Wisdom is revealed to the individual soul by God 
Himself graciously descending as a preceptor. God will come, 
as a preceptor only when the soul performs penances ie* 
vary& f toiya and y<>9* which are called immortal penances. 
Meykandar distinguishes the ordinary penances like bearing 
with hunger, living in the forest etc., from the immortal 
penance (gjput?* ^sfiULb). C^rya, Krit/d ard ybg<st t are called 
immortal penances because their fruit i. e,, Jnana is immorta 1 
while the fruits of ordinary penances are liable to destruction' 
God coming as a preceptor, shows the way to sever the 
connection with the bonds and reach His feet. This is 
effected by the rite of 'adhva suddhj.' By this process, the 
finitizing effects of adhvfa are destroyed and the individnal's 
knowledge, action and feeling which are limited become 
infinite due to their association with the infinitude of 'Siva 
Sakt? . With the grace of. God* this expansion of the indi- 
vidual's faculties can take place even when the soul is 
associated with the body. In the beginning, way a is the 
source of Partial concealment of the soul's intelligence. 
(S. S S-l I 53). After the onset of grace, the body ceases 
to conceal and becomes rnediu n of expression of God's 
grace, 

Now we may ask what is the use of knowing the 
general nature of Lord Siva ? After knowing the general 
nature, we must worship Him both outwardly and inwardly 
and this will give Jftano. which is the ultimate means to 
attain liberation- Tiruvalluvar also emphasises this point 
when he says, 'What profit have those derived from learning 



who worship not the goad feet of Him who Is Pure 
knowledge ? 54 

Again he says ? 'The head that worships not the fee^ 
of Him who is possessed of eight attributes, is as useless as 
a sense without the power of sensation/^ 

If we know the general nature, we cannot get the 
benefits like the removal of suffering and the experience of 
unexcellable joy which can be got only through knowing 
His special nature. We can know His specific nature when 
we know through His grace, tiruvarui, abandoning the habit 
of knowing through the finite intelligence. Then we have 
the removal of suffering and enjoyment of bliss- God is 
called 'Siva Sat' only in this context- We may consider 
these sayings : 



Tirimcagain 

ugjtii&efr iunrncx/u_jrw L. p & (j^evruG 
' 

Tlrimcagam 



Appar Tevaram 

LD' 

Sivajnana Bodham 



AH these statements in both the devotional and exposi- 
lional works relate to the specific naSore of the Lord. 

We may consider how God helps the three kinds of 
souls (Vijnanakalas, Praiayakalas and sakalas) to get release 
ram bondage. VijMnakalas get release i-e., from attachment 



4? 



to twlvas like leal a due to the special knowledge (rijn 
they have and God ins'ructs them through their intelligence. 
The prafayakalas get release at the end of pr*iaija i.e., 
destruction of the universe and for them Srva appears in 
a superhuman form, like having four hands, three eyes etc. 
For the sakalas, who are associated with the three malas t 
Siva appears as a human guru, and bestows grace when 
the soul attains irumnawppu (attitude of indiffererce to the 
twins fruits of karma). He takes the human form because 
the soul may not approach Him, if He comes with all his 
glory. Thus as the stalking horse (g&j&tb) j s used to 
catch animals, God comes as a hurrnn preceptor and makes 
the soul turn to spiritual ways. Thu; God has a purpose 
in taking a human form. Siva apoears to the prafayakalos 
in a superhuman form, performs purificatory rites and removes 
mala, Siva resides in the intelligence of the Vijnanakalas 
and informs them- In both of these c^ses, there is niradhara 
Siva dilcsa. To the Salcrtas. Siva appears in the form of a 
preceptor, performs purificatory rites and removes mala. This 
is sadhara d~iksa. 

As the ripening of mala varies for the various souls, 
the purificatory rites performed by the Lord are also of 
various kinds. 



I I I ill 

Nayana Spa 53 V^caka M^iasa Sa^rra Yoga Hautri 

(Seeing) (Touching) (words) (Meditation) ("Scrip* 

ttrres.) 

These dlkszs help the soul by removing the evil effects 
of 5mw* and bestow bliss on the souls. In nayana d|*s5. 
the preceptor sees the disciple with His gracious eye liks 
the fish which hatches its eggs by its look."' 

This is also called caksu djks%, | n sparfa dl sS, the 
perceptor performs certain rites to remove the pupil's 



48 

bondage to make him like Siva. This may be compared to 
the birds brooding on th^ir eggs* V&caka djks% \$ teaching 
the five sacred letters according to the eligibility of the 
disciple. In mznasa diks& f the preceptor graciously thinks Of 
the pupil even as the tortoise is said to think of the egg, 
Szsira, rfftsa is teaching the nature of Pati, P^iu and p^sa 
in conformity with sound tradition and teaching the union 
of Siva with souls whan the evil effects of %&ava are 
destroyed. 



Yoga rflftsa is teaching the pupil to practise nir&dh&ra 
Yoga, Among the various d~ik$%s f Tiautri is unique and 
possesses all other alJc^s a s its parts. The first six djkszs 
are of two kinds. 

i) They may be performed independently of hautri 



fi) They may also be performed as parts of the 
huutri diks%. These djks&s are performed independently 
of hautri <2?/?sa, for those who are not eligible for hautri 
dTtsa. Hautri dilcs% \$ two - fold as jn&na hautri and kariy, 
haittri. The first is performing the rites by mentally assembling 
the several thrngs. The second is actually getting the 
required things and performing the rites, 

Urnapati then considers the three forms of initiation 
ie-, Samaya, vises and nirvana. Samaya dlksz qualifies one 
for the chanting of mantras and visesa diks% qualifies the 
person for specialising in rites of worship and yogic practice* 
Samaya dilcsa is initiating a person into a particular religion 
and this is done for those who have mandatara saktinipatz* 
^5esa Dlk$a is making the person so initiated to do. 
ptija etc., and this is done for those who have manda 
sakimpata. Nirvana dlksa is completely removing bondage 
and helping the souS to reach God. 



49 

Nirva&a djksa is divided into (1) s &ty nirvana dilc$a 
and (ii) asatyo nirvana djk$a. Stayonirvana diksa gives 
release immediately while asaiyo nirvand gives release at 
physical death. While satyonirvana, diksa is performed for 
tivratara jaktinipata asastyo nirvana is done for tivrn saktinipata. 
Siva comes in the form of a preceptor and purifies six 
adkvas either by jn&na or by kriya. Nirvana leads the 
soul to the path of spiritual wisdom by helping it to 
purify the six kinds of ways through which the fruits of 
karma reach it Adhva means way and the fruits of karma 
reach the soul through the ways. In the same way, the 
the soul can attain liberation only by destroying the karmas 
which are accumulated in the six adhvas. The a&hvas are 
mantra, pada, var&a, bhuvana, taftva and kala. The first Of 
these is absorbed by the second, first and second by the 
third and so, on. When the karmas which are accumulated 
in the adhvas are destroyed, maya which comes as the 
support qf karma is also destroyed and is again absorbed 
by Siva- When Tirodhana gafei subsides, the soul is freed 
from mato t birth etc., and comes to have -knowledge of 
fiva. 57 Sfyagra yogin, commentator on Sivajnzna SiddMyar 
says that odhv^s are purified with the help of foryS, 
jf&na and .s&mbhava diks%s t Kriyz. diks& removes the bondage 
of karma. Jnzna dik$% is performed by jcontemplation done 
with Siva Sakti f while sambhava djksa is done with $H 
sakti alone- By these three diksas, impurity of adhv%$ is 
removed- 



Mantra, p*ida and varn* are the products of 
; so they are called juddhadhva. Tattva is the product 
of $uddha and afuddha mays.. Hence it is called mi&radhv t 
Bhuvana means world. Since the world is produced out of 
either $uddha r or mi&ra or prakrti maya. bhuvana is called 
uddha t misra and prakrti adhv%. These three adhv%s expand 
< into th five, mantra, fad\f t varqa, bhuvana and 



50 



The Lord removes the evil effects of %$ava mala and 
agami karma by His jnawa sakti; this is like light removing 
darkness. In order to cause anava mala to ripen, He 
makes the soul experience karma, arising from thoughts, 
words and deeds, which now exist in the six adhvas. 
When the soul becomes fit, the Lord appears as the 
preceptor, destroys sa&cita and purifies adhvas. To sum up 
anava and agami are removed by Jnana &aUi; Sancita and the 
products of maya which support sancita are removed by 
Kriya sakti; and prarabdha is removed by being experienced. 

The question may arise whether God can be experienced 
by human beings. Umapati says that God cannot be reached 
through pasa jnana or through pasu jnana He can be 
realized only through Pati jnana. We cannot experience 
God through instruments like eye, ear etc., and also by 
mind, because these are the products of may a* Since maya 
is a category of past*, the knowledge which we get 
through the instruments of maya is called pasa jnana- 
When the soul discriminates itself as different from all these 
products of >aya, and considers itself as an intelligent 
being, this knowledge is higher than pasajnana. The soul 
is called pau and the knowledge which the soul knows 
about itself is called pa$u jnana. Umapati Sivam says that 
God is not to be experienced either through pa$<* jnana or 
through pa$u jnana but only through pati jnana. 

The metaphysical propriety of speaking of God as the 
Infinite which manifests Itself may be questioned- It may 
be objected that if the separate existence of souls and 
the world is recognized we thereby limit the Infinite the 
objector argues that the Infinite is the one without a second- 
He wants to establish this proposition by quoting the vedic 
declaratien thet Reality is one- The Siddhantin answers the 
objection by explaining the Vedic declaration as meaning that 
Supreme Reality is one. We are reminded of Manikkavacagar's 



51 - , 

~ 

'See Him. that one, whose title is the only One! ;> Ag*id 
the Siddhantin feels that the sense in which the ^ ec *t 
understands the infinite does not do justice to the concept 
of the Infinite. Perhaps the conception of the Infinite, as 
explained by the Sloasama vadin may be found helpful, in 
this context. The Sivasomav^din has ^explained the concept 
of the Infinite by arguing that [a] spiritual entities do not 
limit one another in the way material entities do and 
[bJ that there will be no conflict between the will of the 
Lord and the will of the released soul because these are 
identical, in intending the welfare of all living beings- 
There will be thus concord of wills, not discord- In brief 
there is thus no incompatability of existence or purpose 
between the lord and the souls, since both are spiritual 
entities and both are actuated by benevolence and compassion 
for souls in bondage and whom they wish to emancipate. 

We may also consider another point. It is the mark 
of a highly evolved soul to take delight in the existence 
and welfare of other souls. In fact, such souls find their 
self-fulfilment in sacrificing themselves for others. They are 
the salt of the earth. They live for others and not for 
themselves- Hence they promote the interests of others and 
help these to grow to their full stature- When such is 
the case of the great ones, it follows afortiori that God 
would rejoice in the full blossoming of the souls and not 
feel himself limited by their existence or greatness. What 
is more He helps them to realize their real greatness- The 
Eighth sutra of the Sivajnana Bodham explains how like a 
king who rescues his prince kidnapped by gypsies and 
reveals the prince's royal heritage, God also wants the soul 
to realize their divine heritage as His children, if an 
earthly father rejoices in the greatness of his son, it follows 
afortiori that our heavenly father would rejoice all the more. 

V,A* Devesenapathy in his book of human bondage 
and" divine grace, (p.19-) quotes from Dawes Hicks 'The 



52 



philosphicaL basis of theism' to reinforce the Siddhantin's 
conception of the Infinite* Dawes Hicks says, 'The infinitude 
of knowledge and of love has nothing in common with 
the endlessness of space/ To know or to love anything 
or any one genuinely or intensely is to be 'infinite' in 
regard to that person or thing- The mind of Peter Bell 
was limited and imperfect not because it was other then 
Primrose but because it failed tp appreciate the Primrose; 
the poet was free from that limitation, not because 
Primrose was, in any, sense, part of him but because he 
could appreciate its beauty and experience the joy of such 
appropriation. And, so likewise in regard to the world, God 
may be 'infinite', not because He is the world, not because 
the world is part of him ; but because in and through 
Him, the world has meaning and significance ; because His 
knowledge of it is complete and His solicitude for it per- 
fect- To me, at all events, it seems simply a misuse of 
language to call an individual finite or limited, Merely be- 
cause other there onter individuals distinct from himself. If 
there were no other individuals, then, his being would in- 
deed be impoverished and his sphere of influence is confi- 
ned-' What Dawes Hicks says about Religion in the con- 
cluding sentence of his work is also worth quoting because 
it throws light on the need to recognize the supreme mind 
(and, by implication, the finite minds) : "Religion in its 
highest form rests, as I conceive it, upon belief in a 
supreme living and personal Mind ; it loses its meaning if 
the ultimate ground of things be taken to be a system of 
thought contents wich preserve their timeless being while 
human souls , such as these are then supposed to * be, 
arise and pass 



The supremacy of the Lord is also clear when the 
Slddhantin speaks of God as the Lord of the Universe. The 

jg Here the argument closely follows Dr. Devasena Kather's work of 
human pondage and divine grace, 



53 



souls are His slaves (^^STCLD) and the world is His 
possession (a_.tfnt_6ff>LD) Thus the universe, animate as well 
as inanimate, being under His control and guidance cannot 
limit His finitude. We have shown that it is possible to 
admit the existence of souls without compromising the 
the infinitude of God. But the question arises as to whether 
pasa limits the infinitude of God and become rival to Htm. 
The Siddhantin replies that &ava the root evil, is a principle 
of darkeness clouding the intelligence of souls. As anav& 
is unable to function unless it is activated by the Tirodhana 
Sakti of the Lord, it is really under His control- Maya the 
stuff out of which the material universe evolves, may be 
considered to be independent of God as coeval with Him. 
But maya also cannot evolve without the Lord's resolve. 
The objection may be raised that if maya is co - eternal 
with God, then He is not a creator but at best can only 
be an architect fashioning the universe with the material 
that is already there. At this state three main answers may 
be given with regard to the existence of the world, 
first answer is that matter exists along side of Him. This 
answer may call forth the objection just noticed that if 
matter exists independent of God, wa are left only with 
an architect, not a creator- So another answer may ba 
given. It may be said that the world evolves out 
of God Himself. This would give rise to another 
difficulty that if the world evolves out of God, 
then He would become subject to change* we cannot think 
of God as changing or as being split up into ths world- 
The third answer that is advocated is that the world is 
not a real transformation of God but is only an illusory 
transfiguration. This, the Siddhantin feels that is not the 
proper explanation- For if the world is only an illusory 
transfiguration of God, and there is no existent other than 
God, then there is really no world, no creation etc. in so 
far as the Siddhantin. accepts the reality of creation, he 
may not accept that scriptural declarations about the crea- 



54 

tion of the world etc-, are not the final truth- The Siddh 
hantin also feels that this answer seems to involve a denial 
of the problem itself by pointing out the difficulties in the 
answers suggested and thus imply that the problem is 
inadmissible. Umapati SiVam states the Siddhanta position 
with regard to creation thus : 60 What is the material cause 
of the universe? The answer is that maya is the material 
cause of the universe- If it is stated that God and not 
maya is the material cause, then it is to be stated that 
the unintelligent world cannot spring from Ood who is 
supreme Intelligence. The question may take another turn 
as what the need is for a God, if maya itself evolves into 
the universe, for which the rejoinder is that as rrnya fs 
inert, it cannot by itself associate with souls as their body, 
the world in which they live etc. Hence God is nece- 
ssary. Then one may say that it detracts from God's 
omnipotence if He is not to be able to create without 
maya. The right view is that though maya is as eternal 
as God, it is God who is the master who wields it to 
create any form He pleases- Gl But (just because maya is 
eternal like Him) no one would say that maya gives 
primacy to the Lord- Thaugh maya is eternal like God, 
it is not intelligent and maya is made to act through 
energy of the Lord for the sake of souls- 

As for karma, again, it may be said that applying the 
principle of parsimony, we can have either karma or God 
and that it is unnecessary to have both- If we recognize 
kaima also in addition to God, is it not implied that God 
is powerless to interfere in the affairs which are determined 
by karma? The siddhantin's reply is that karma being inert, 
cannot operate without the help of God- God rules over 
karma also, though normally He may not overrule karma, 
karma is meant to serve a purpose viz, to enable souls to 
learn to act righteously without caring for consequences 
and without the sense of agency. When this lesson has 



55 



been learnt, God brings the individual under the sovereignty 
of love after having first placed him under the sovereignty 
of moral law. Once the individual surrenders to the Lord, 
Karma ceases to bind him. Siva is described as the 
destroyer of sins. Manikkavacagar asks challengingly, 

*And are there other sin-destroyers, say! in this wide- 
world?' 62 The siddhantin explains the suoremacy of the 
Lord with a telling imagery. The bonds hold in their 
grip only those who are not devoted to Him* If the bonds 
attempt to get into their clutches the devotees of the Lord, 
they will be in the same plight as an ant which attempts 
to eat fire- 68 

Umapati Sivam explains the nature and form of Divine 
Wisdom without compromising the existence of souls and 
bonds- Umapati says that though Divine knowledge pervades 
the world, it is unaffected by the intelligent and non-intelligent 
entities. 6 * The intelligent and the non-intelligent world function 
toward their appointed destiny due to the benign presence 
of the concealing sakti. The Lord transcends the intelligent 
and non-intelligent entities and these entities are used for 
helping the soul by the Lord. The phrase 'ptirnreoLh Qup 
$<nnp/50 <$ /r GST G LD <g$nevrib ersaru/r'. Which occurs 
(SP. 69) emphasises the infinitude of siva. sivajnana 
Yogin gives ths meaning for this phrase that Pati 
inana alone is independent and P*fu and P'dsa jfana are 
dependent on P^i. At the level of pas*,, there is no freedom. 
The bonds are inert and fuction only when they are activated 
by God. At the level of pau, there is freedom but that 
freedom is limited by the soul's previous karma. The soul 
can function only after getting the body, instruments etc, 
provided by the Lord. In the state of few**, the soul is 
not associated with the instruments of may*. In the salsala- 
vastha God provides the soul with body, instruments etc., 
and the soul geta knowledge only with the help of these 



instruments. Thus while at the level of pa& even thouih 
there is freedom, that freedom is conditioned by the soul's 
past deeds. Only at the level of Pati, we have supreme 
autonomy. 

This supremacy of Pati is compatible with the existence 
of souls and bonds, if we understand the concept qf the 
Infinite in thd sense explained earlier 11 Umapati explains 
the supreme autonomy of Pati with the help of an analogy. 
Just like the sunlight which pervades all space, the Divine 
knowledge pervades the world for the good of souls, 
unaffected by the intelligent and non-intelligent entities in 
the world which are illuminated by it- The wise consider 
this knowledge alone as real knowledge or wisdom. 60 

It is Interesting in this connection to note what the 
author of ''Sivaneri-prakasam gives as answer for the question 
whether God is not affected by P^a. He replies by giving 
the following analogies. 66 

1) Though air pervades the sky, heat, cold, movement 
etc,, which occur in it do not affect the sky. 

2) Salt affects water in the sea, not the space which 
contains water. 

3) Though antidote and poison may be found on the 
same tree, antidote does not remove the poison from the 
tree- It is useful in removing poison if anyone has taken 
poison- 

4) Though poison is found in the snake, it does not 
affect the snake. 

5) Asafoetida destroys any tree with which it may 
come into contact, but it does not destroy the tree on 
which it grows- 

Thus the siddhantin tries to maintain the supremacy of 
the Lord without denying the existence of souls or of the 
universe- 



CONCEPTION OF SOUL 

The concept of soul is very important in Saival 
Siddhanta* The advartin says that consciousness (tit) aspect of 
Brahman is like a lamp placed between two rooms and if 
we understand it aright, then we can understand all tfte 
three aspects of Brahman i e v S#t f cit and ananda. In the 
same way we may say that if we underatand the concept 
of past* clearly, and distinctly, we can understand all the 
three concepts of P'ati, pasu and pa$a correctly. Umapati 
Sivam uses three terms i.e., Aruyir vargam> (^"^ j/T<a;u> 
SP8) literally the class of precious souls, Narpasu vargam 
(fsrbu&eun&aub SP- 16) literally the class of good cows, 
here pa$u O r cow stands for souls and sadasat (SP. 57) to 
denote the soul. We must clearly grasp what the Siddhantin 
means by the term sadasat. 1 

This Siddhantin speaks of the Lord as 'sat' of the 
soul as 'sadasat' and of the bonds as asat. But as pat* 
pa$u and p^sa are all eternal entities according to Saiva 
Sfddhanta. we must understand the term wat, in valuational 
and not in an ontological sense- As entites, the three have 
neither beginning nor end- ~ we may also point to literary usage 
both in English and in Tamil to reinforce the point* 3 Wfe 
say of some one who is not important in a given setting that he 
(or she) is a non-entity- Surely, it doss not mean that he 
does not exist, thet he (or she) is a non-entity, It only 
means that he doss not count for a given purpose. Almost 
the same is conveyed in popular Tamil, when we say, 'He 
s not to be counted',. We must understands^ and 
in this specific manner. 



58 



This 'sadasat' nature is denoted by Meykandar as 
adu %dal' (c9/g/ <&jgi ^psb) and is paraphrased as yadonru 
parrin adan iyalb%y nirral (ujnQ&nevTfpi urbr&esr c^jse&r {jjiueb 
UITUJ fBrbpeb) by Tayumanavar. These mean that the soul 
becomes one with whatever it is associated with or attached 
to. That is to say, whatever its own nature or individuality 
may be, when it becomes united with another, it loses its 
own characteristics and individuality and partakes of the 
nature of the thing it unites with and completely marges 
itself in the other It is to be noted that the sadast 
characteristic of the sou! is in general consonance with the 
Tamil tradition. 4 Tiruvalluvar says, 

'Just as the water changeth with its soil's taste and 
hue, So too a man's own nature changeth with his company 
too*' 5 The water falling from the sky is colourless and 
tasteless, but as it touches the earlh, it becomes sweet or 
dirty or discoloured according to the nature of the soil, 
losing thereby its individuality and purity- So does a man 
become good or bad according to the association he forms- 
It is because of the soul's strong tendency to identify 
itself with its environment that sage Tayumanavar sings, 

" Oh f for the day when I shall be in inseparable union 
with the wise, ever stable One, 
Even as now I am in inseparable union with the 
primal Impurity/' 6 

The Sivajn&na Bodham written by Meykandar is the 
basic text of Saiva Siddhanta. It is short in extent and 
very terse in style. Meykandar's disciple, Arufnandi Sivam 
wrote a commentary in verse on the Kmj^Sna Bottom and 
this is called SivajMna Siddhiyzr. The Sivaju%na Bodham 
is called the basic text (mudal nul) and Siddhiyar is termed 
as a derivative work (**! #/), Umapati Sivam wrote the 
Sivaprakasam, elucidating points not explained in the two 
earlier works and leaving out those aspects which were 



59 



clearly explained in those texts. Meykandar states the argu- 
ments for the existence of soul in eight parts (adhitcaranas) 
and Aru\nundi Sivaw, deals with this subject although not 
in great details. Umapati Sivam does not take up the 
question of the existence of the soul for discussion. Instead 
he proceeds to explain the nature fo soul !n the state fo 
release at great lengte. The SivapraUasam is dependent 
work (carbu n&l). We may briefly consider the main points 
regarding the arguments for the existence of the soul as 
gathered from the ^ivajuana Bodham and the Sivajnana 
siddhiyar. 

Raplying to the Sunyavadin t the Siddhantin says that 
the S&nyavadin does not merely say that the soul does 
not exist. He says that the body, the instruments etc., are 
not the soul. Here it is not bare negation, but it is a case 
of significant negation and so the very denial of the soul 
implies the soul. This reply of the siddhantin is similar to 
that of Descartes who contends that the very fact of doub 
ting implies the doubter- Dehatmavadin, (belonging to one 
sect of the materialists) says that what we mean by the 
soul is the body and therefore the body must be taken to 
be the soul. The Siddhantin replies that as in the case of 
a man who, while speaking of his wife and his city, 
speaks in the possessive sense (as my wife, my city) 
knows that he is other than they, in the same way when 
we speak in the possessive sense of the body, we must 
know that the soul is different from the body- There is 
also another reason in support of this fact- If the body is 
the soul, it should be able to exercise its function even 
affter death, because all the constituents of the body are 
in the dead body also. Since this does not happen, the 
notion that the body is not the soul is justified. The 
Indiryatmavadin says that the indriyas or five organs .of 
sense, which perceive the different sensations, are what we 
rrean by the soul- We can see four defects in this theory. 
The five organs of sense are capobk of having consciousness 



60 

but not desire or will. The soul is an entity which is 
characterized not only by consciousness, but also by desire 
and will as well. Secondly, each sense organ perceives a 
different phenomenon and does not know what the other 
senses perceive. The eye can only see, but not hear etc. 
The soul is an entity using all these senses, has awareness 
of the data given by them and thus the senses cannot be 
the soul- Thirdly, the senses have only objective awareness, 
but do not have subjective consciousness. The eye can see, 
but is not conscious of seeing. The soul is a consciou 5 
entity which not only has awareness, but is also conscious 
of its awareness. Fourthly, if the sense organs constitute 
the soul, how can we explain the cognition of dreams, 
where the sense organs do not function? It is the soul 
which perceives dreams in sleep when the sense organs 
are inactive. 

The suksma dehatma vadin says that the subtle body 
(stilcsma deha) is the soul- But this is untenable because 
there is knowledge of dream state on waking up. if this 
knowledge is said to be due to the subtle body, then there 
should be no difference between the dream state and waking 
state in regard to the content of the dream. We do notice 
a difference. The content of dream is dim in the waking 
state while it is vivid during the dream state. : Therefore 
the subtle body cannot be the soul. When we say that 
the soul distinguishes itself from the body, the term 'body' 
includes both the subtle and the gross bodies and so the 
subtle body atso cannot be the soul. 

The antahkaranatmavadin maintains that the internal 
organs of knowledge constitute the soul- This is not 
acceptable for the reason that the internal senses are dependent 
for their material on the external senses; and as the internal 
organs are different from this material, so is the soul 
different from antatikaranas. As the internal organs are only 
Intelligent when viewed in relation to the subordinate I t 



6! 



but are non-intelligent when viewed in relation to the soul, 
the internal organs cannot be the soul- As in the case of 
external senses, the internal organs have only objective 
consciousness, but not subjective awareness. Hence though 
the manas doubts, it does not know that it doubts and 
thus the internal organs cannot be the soul. 

It may be said that unlike the subtle body which is 
present in the dream state, prana \iayu which is present 
always, is the soul- The Siddhantin replies that the body 
is given to us in order that we may have cognition of 
the world and the experiences of pleasure and pain- These 
experiences should be available to prana vaya at all times 
as it functions at all times. However as these experience 
are not present in sleep even though the prana vayu is 
present in that state, they are obviously not for the benefit of 
vital air. Functioning for the soul which is other then the 
vital air, these experiences present themselves when the 
soul is awake and are in abeyance when the soul rests- 
It may be suggested that while each of these claimants 
may be unsatisfactory, all of them together could constitute 
the soul. But such an aggregate of the body, sense organs 
subtle body, vital air and interne! organs cannot be the 
soul as it would cease to be an entity and become a 
number of things. 

Lastly, the suggestion may be made while there is 
need to recognize the existence of the soul as different 
from all these, this soul is the Lord Himself, This is unac- 
ceptable for the reason that the soul which uses instrument^ 
for attaining knowledge cannot be the Supreme Intelligence. 
The soul knows only when it is made to know-in other 
words it does not know by itself and cannot be God" 
The Siddhantin concludes by stressing the need to recognize 
the existence of an intelligent principle, different not only 
from matter, but also from the Supreme Being. 



62 



We may now consider Umapati's classification of souls- 

H explains the distinction of souls into three kinds. They 

are vijnanakalar, souls with one primal impurity (a^ava mala), 

praiayakalar, souls having anava and karma r and sakalar 

having the three impurities. In the verse expressing humility 

and deference to others (awiyjdakkam-&i<snGuiuL~&&d>) we 

can find Umapati Sivam classifying men into three other 

other kinds, hh says that whatever is old cannot be deemed 

to be good (on account of its antiquity alone) and whatever 

book comes forth today cannot be judged ill because of 

its newness- Men pledged to seek good in everything will 

not mind the dust that covers a beautiful gem but only 

appreciate its true worth- People of middle calibre will 

investigate and welcome the beauty and antiquity of a work- 

Men who have no capacity to judge the fault, excellences 

and substantial worth of a production will praise it, if 

many admire it and will in the same breath condemn it on 

hearing others speak ill of it, becauae they have no opinion 

of their own. Here we find the three kinds of man, nttama, 

madhyama and adhama. We find the same theme in Rdidasa's 

Malavikagnimitta. in that drama while answering the objections 

that when there are prominent authors like Bhasa, Saumilla 

etc., why Kalid-asa's drama is praised so much, Kalidasa 

answes "All poetry is not good merely because it is old nor 

is it faulty because it is new- The wise, after examining 

both, accept either- He is a fool whose mind is guided by 

the convictions of others'. 7 Here we can find that while 

Umapati Sivam takes the hint from Kalidasa, he develops 

it further. Kalidasa described two kinds of men only i.e., 

uttama and adhama t while Umapati Sivam explains this idea, 

by expanding the classification of men into three kinds in 

a beautiful Tamil verse. (SP. 12.) 

Umapati Sivam describes the state of the soul in the 
bound condition in verse nineteen. Saiva Siddhanta admits 
a plurality of related souls, relation being possible through 



63 



the commonly present medium of God, with which each 

soul is non-dual istically related (ennQ-riday SP m 19) The souls 

are many in the ultimate sense also, as it is for Sankhya* 

but they are not ultimately disparate and unrelated to each 

other. Umapati Sivarn says "The number of free and the 

number of unfree are equal to the number of days past 

since creation and the days yet to come" 8 . The souls 

besides being a plurality, are also eternal substances, which 

is denoted by the word 'nittcmay' by Umapati Sivam- The 

reality of soul is not the reality of series of states of 

consciousness, but one of abiding continuity. Being [of the 

nature of spirit (cfc'O, the souls are uncreated- Though 

uncreatedi their states of embodement are ^accomplished by 

the grace of the Lord in accordance with their karma- 

(YakJcai annal arutal nanni SP. 79). Originally sunk in the 

impurity of spiritual darkness, the soul acquired bodies suited 

to work out its Jcarma. As a result of embodiment, the 

class of pafu cumes to be differentiated as male, female 

and neuter. By virtue of identification with the bodies with 

it is associated; it becomes an experiencing agent (bhokta) 

and thinks that it is the doer (karta). The soul experiences 

objects in diverse ways- In the wake of its empirical life, 

which is one of action both in the negative and positive 

sense, of doing the good and also of doing what is not 

good, (hita f dhita), the soul is led to commission of 

merit and demerit. And in order to enjoy the fruits of merit 

and demerit, the soul is launched on in its career of repeated 

births and deaths. The soul has to experience the fruits o* 

its karma in heaven, in hell and in this world. When this 

congenital impurity (iru\malam) becomes ripe for removal by 

Grace's special dispensation (under the guise of a preceptor), 

the light which has been shining from within itself is 

disclosed to it and the darkness is dispelled so that it 

attains the feet of the Lord. 9 Such is the nature and 

destiny of the soul in brief as expounded in the nineteenth 

verse of Swaprak&sam. The relation between God and soul 



64 



is described in Saiva Siddhanta in the paradoxical manner-viz. 
He is such who is the multiple souls (avaiyeyai SB 2). He 
is also one Himself (taneyay SB 2 and also tanetani TVP 8) 
and also He is at once both (avaiye taneyay SB 2). 

After explaining the state of soul in bondage! Umapati 
proceeds to explain pasa I- e., anava>, karma and may a and 
their impact on the embodied soul- 10 Then he defined the 
nature of individual soul in terms of its three causal states 
!(karan<* avastha$) i- e, kevala, sakala and suddha. These are 
called causal states in relation to states like waking, dream, 
sleep etc, Which are called the effect states (karya avasthas). 
The causal states include the pre-empirical, empirical and 
the supra-empirical states. These are marked respectively and 
the supra-empirical states. These are marked respectively by 
'complete concealment partial revelation and total revelation 
of the cognitive, conative and affective states of the 
individual. He describes these cwastha$ in the present con- 
text, how by means of these states of the individual, 
is effected a progressive dissolution of bondage. In the 
unmai part of the book i- e., in the state of release also, 
Umapati reverts to this topic where he focusses attention 
on the actual dissolution of bondage in and through a 
life of purity- (&uddhavastha) . in short, kevala avastha is a 
state of preembodies isolation where the soul is devoid 
of manifestation of knowledge and activity- 

Kevalavastha : Of the three states* kaval&vastha is one 
of total immersion in the darkness of &nava and description 
of this state can only be from the perspective of embodied 
existence in terms of negations of various positive characteris- 
tics* The negative characteristic amounts to saying that 
the individual soul barley exists, devoid even of the specific 
attributes which are the special characteristics of individua- 
lity. It is compared to a lustrous gem that has been put 
in an ink bottle, in which its lustrous nature remains 
obscured, but not destroyed by the ink that envelops it- 



65 



ijn%.na Sambandar's Commentary on Sivajn^na Siddhiysr) ^ 
Umapati says that the soul is compared to the eye that is 
enveloped in darkness Tha eye is wide open, yet it ,does 
not 'see'. What it lacks as a consequence of being enveloped 
in darkness is not its sight but the facility to see the 
object. There is nothing in the situation of its being 
ehveloped in darkness, neither in the eye-sight itself no r 
in the encircling darkness that points to a possiblity of 
deliverance from the predicament, (oduvay ritngi*m vagaiyinri 
SP 33). The needed facility cannot be provided by anything 
other than a ray of light from without. This state precedes 
the individual's association with the apparatus of fattvas 
that go to constitute the contents of empirical experience. 
The soul in the kevala state is devoid of the tattvas generative 
of experience (bhogakaiid&), those that constitute the contents 
of experience (bhogya ka&da) and of activity that arises in 
the sakala state. The soul is unveiled by the operation of 
instruments begining with kala. The soul is likewise devoid 
of will and agency and of even a rudiment of individua- 
lity that is provided by bodily form. 11 It is in fact one 
with mala in such a way as to make us say that it is 
nothing apart from the enveloping mala (malamanri onrumitai 
enum iyalbay SP 33). It has no knowledge either, being 
unassociated with knowledge-unveiling accessories (arik aruv 
anaiya adalinal SP 33). and does not know know- 
ledge that indwells it inalienably fangu arivai arivariday 
SP 33). Like the eye in total darkness that lacks motivation 
to. see, in the absence of the possibility of facillity 
to see, the soul in the kevala state also lacks 
motivation to experience. Consequently there is also no 
begining or termination such as it has in its empirical 
existence and no scope for discursive or finite knowledge 
either, in a condition where there is no knowledge at alf, 
(Here the author of Cintanai urai lists the absence of ten 
characteristics in the kevala state j. e-, kal'ddi (instruments 
begining with kala, gunadi, iccha t j&ana f kriya t ru]?*, mudanmai 



66 

(importance) clinging to enjoyment the origin and cessation 
of acts of intelligence and cuttunarvu ^conditioned intelligence)- 
The commentator also points out that kevala mentioned 
here is to be distinguished form Kevala mentioned in the 
Sivajnana SiddUyar (4. 37). In this connection the author 
of Cintanai Urai distinguishes five kinds of kevala. 12 They 
are anadi Jcevald, karana kevala f karya key a la, nitya kevala 
and praiaya kevala. Anadi kevala denotes the existence 
of anavamala in general, karana kevala denotes the very 
subtle (adi stiksma) five acts (pancakrty*) o f the Lord and 
the ^arya kevala signifies the kevala state in which the five 
avasthas occur in the jagrat state- Nithya Icevala denotes the 
existence of five states in the state of otita itself and praiaya 
kevala describes the resolving in maya during the praiaya.) 



Umapati clearly says that positing an&va mala is the 
special feature of saiva Siddhanta and it distinguishes it 
from the inner schools of Saivism- The point of distinction 
is the acknowledgement or postulation of a state as a 
precondition of the possiblity of moJcsa as we! I as samsara* 
This state is the basis for both the fettered and the released 
state and this is kevalavdstha. Acceptence of this follows as 
a consequence of anava mala, it is very difficult to prove 
the existence of anava mala so long as we are in the 
fettered state. By definition, it is the primordial cause of 
the conditioned state of existence and therefore eludes 
understanding In this respect, it differs from all other factors 
involved in the process of conditioning. Everything that is 
important like God- soul, harma t m^y& etc., are demonstrated 
to be necessary implications of empirical existence- To accept 
the world of empirical experience is to accept these reali~ 
ties ; because these are implied by it- But in the case of 
aifova by its very nature it is not evident as the implication 
of the world* Umapati's view is that it is the ultimate 
implication of distinction between bondage and liberation 



67 

and in relation to the empirical world, mala is a postulate 
to account for the why and wherefore of experience* 

At this stage umapati considers the objection of the 
Aikya vada saivite regarding the existence of anavamala. 
Without accepting anava i the root cause of all evil, the 
Aikyu vadin explains his whole system with the help of 
may a and karma only. According to his theory, God give s 
all souls the bodies, minds, words and substances in accor- 
dance with their past two fold actions- The soul goes 
through the cycle of births and deaths and when all the 
actions are balanced so as to be washed off in a single 
birth, God by His grace puts an end to ail the bonds so 
effectively that no bond can subsequently affect the free 
soul which shines in its own essence. The soul attains 
its own innate, pristine purity i.e., freedom from bonds- 15 

Umapati begins to answer the criticism of the 
Aikyavadin in the two verses (i.e) thirty fifth and thirty 
sixth by pointing out the defects which accrue when we 
do not accept %&ava, the root cause of all sufferings. He 
says that admission of maya and karma only will raise the 
insoluble question of their relative priority. One implies the 
other and is implied by it as in the case of seed and 
tree. Umapati gives the example of palm tree and seed. Do 
they not therefore point to a more basic source of bondage? 
Further more, the question will arise how the bond can 
affect pure innate souls ? If it is said that bondage is 
natural, the souls may be affected even after salvation. If 
it is the case, what is the good of salvation, and how 
can we speak of ultimate freedom from ^bondage ? In view 
of these difficulties it is necessary to postulate a factor of 
beginningless bondage (anacti bandham) presence of which 
constitutes bondage and the non- presence of which constitutes 
freedom from bondage. Though beginningless, by God's 
grace, bondage is not endless. Umapati Sivam refers to the 
structure of experience itself in support of %&ava mala. When 



68 



the instruments of waya enable the soul to know, why is 
the latter not enabled also to know itself ? If it is the 
function of the instruments of may a to limit the omni- 
science of the sou! and cause discursive knowledge to it. 
how is it that when the soul is dissociated from these 
nstruments, it sinks into ignorance instead of regaining its 
ommiscience ? This ^tate of ignorance, which the Aikyavadin 
calls ignorance (tiriyamai) is called by Saiva Siddhantin as 
Anava. This ignorance which ensues in the absence of the 
senses and instruments, is the basis for acknowledging a 
metaphysical principle called anaua. 

The Aikyavadin asks whether against this experience 
one has to. postulate the principle of mala and whether 
ignorance may not be treated as one of the states of the 
soul (i.e., kevala) O r even one of the characteristics of the 
soul. Umapati Sivam answers this by insisting on the fact of 
mala, urging various considerations for making clear the 
difference between anava mala and ^evola avasthfi of the 
soul. He says that there is a principle that accounts for the 
fact of ignorance and is therefore different from ignorance 
itself. The state that terminates the state of kevala \ e , the 
wakeful empirical life, does not however mean the termination 
of ignorance. Ignorance persists in discursive knowledge, of 
wakeful life also- Anava conceals the true nature of the world 
and also the unfailing Light within the soul which helps the 
soul to know God- 14 The result of this argument is that there 
is"an active effecient principle of ignorance as different from 
the state of ignorance itself Ckevala). 

Ignorance cannot be a component of the nature of soul- 
If ignorance were a quality of the soul, it is not intelligible 
to say that at the time when Grace prevails i.e., in moksa, 
the soul is freed of ignorance and comes to have knowledge 
oflGod as the only ali-prevading Reality. It is therefore 
possible that ignorance cannot be intrinsic to the soul, bu 8 
is occassioned by the presence * of something other than the 



69 

soul viz., mala m Umapati draws the positive significance o f 
this objection, i.e., ignorance could be a mode of f soul's 
knowledge in the following way- That is precisely m^la 
which persists and fuctions so pervasively in relation to the 
souls as to make it appear as though there was no such 
hing as soul. 

Umapati Sivam lists the points of distinction between 
Jcevalavastha and mala, which occassions kevalavastha. 
kevalavastha is continuously interrupted and terminated by 
mUya and karma but wafo is not terminated likewise- Even 
when kevalavastha is terminated through maya and karma, 
mala instead of disappearing, exerts its harmful inflnence 
through maya and karma and causes delusive knowledge to 
the soul- Maya and karma by their association with mala, 
themselves become a species of mala, even though through this 
process, maya and karma make mala fit for removal- Therefore 
the distinction between kevalavastha and mala is that while 
there is termination for kevalavastha in sakalavastha, mala js 
only removed in the sense that its energy is kept under 
control by the two processes of kevala and sakala and is 
terminated only in suddhavastha. 

Umapati answers the objection that mala is not supported 

by any evidence perceptual or otherwise, and is merely a 

postulate, by stressing the precise characteristic of mala, it 

not only conceals the indwelling Grace by preventing its 

presence being felt, but also conceals itself. In this respect 

it differs from all known covers which cover things but 

the cover itself remains uncovered- Thus the characterstic of 

spiritual or metaphysical darkness is that its own presence 

and functions are pre-eminently part of what is covered 

from the knowledge of the soul. There is no discursive 

knowledge of the existence of wato. We cannot have discursive 

knowledge of a#wa mala, because discursive knowledge 

depends upon past* jnana. Inava mala becomes evident only 

upon the cessation of pasu mana. 



70 



Sakalavastha : Umapati Sivam explains in this state how 
the soul is associated with the various instrjments like 
a, vidya t r&ga etc-, and how it gains merit and demerit 
and papa) by identifying itself with the environment 
i-e-, body> instruments etc. The soul begins to have the ten 
features (as mentioned above i- e., kaladi, gunadi etc.) which 
were not present in the kevalavastha. The disembodied sou! 
becomes embodied acquiring bodies of various kinds. Aru/nandi 
Sivam classifies them under karana. kancuJca and guna m the 
last including suJcsma and sthula bodies. (Sivajnana Siddhiya 1 ? 
4 2l) t The soul's powers like cognition, conation and affection 
are partially disclosed by association of the individual with 
the arousal of tattvcia t the individual is made fit for experience. 
The soul becomes an agent, responsible for its action, 
acquires merit and demerit, becomes finitized and undergoes 
an unending series of births and deaths, marked by alter- 
nate manifestation and lack of manifestation of its know- 
ledge and activity. 

Umaoati Sivam states that the individual first comes to 
be associated with the fattvas, which are the evolutes of 
>aya and that this happens to counteract the bond of mala. 15 
Here it rs asked how by coming to be associated with the 
non-intelligent tattvas, it is possible for the intelligent soul 
to be freed, however partially from the obscuring effects of 
mala, and to have the knowledge etc- unveiled- Umapati 
here replies that these tattvas even though they are non~ 
intelligent, are operated by intelligent Sakti of Siva (Tirodhayi) 
and that they function like light, which pierces the encircling 
darkness. 

Due to the operation of Siva Sakti, the individual soul 
whose knowledge is unveiled by means of kala etc, comes 
to have the objects of experience thus unveiled as its 
objects. While thws the individual rs turned towards the 
object, at the same time he is effectively precluded by the 



71 



presence of mat from knowing the Grace that works 
unceasingly from within. 

Umapati says that the distinguishing feature of individual's 
empirical experience is that it is notlone of continuity and the 
discontinuity is occassioned by lapses into the kevalavastha. 
It appears as if there is a continuous pull from below to 
thwart the association of the senses and other instruments 
with the soul. It is thus that even the empirical knowledge 
is subject to ebb and flow. Umapali explains this with an 
illustration. The harmful presence of an<wa mala, ready to 
obstruct and constrict the activities of the individual, is 
comparable to the presence of darkness in space which 
awaits, as it were, its first opportunity in the absence of 
light. 16 Umapati says that such is the state of sakalavastha 

The next question is, how do the multiple tattvas 
function as light in revealing the knowledge and action of 
the individual soul? Umapati replies to this, by stating the 
common external condition of existence i-e-, the evolution 
of word (0afc). Here by word is meant, what is manifested 
by the word symbol, oral or written. In Saiva Siddhanta 
it is conceived as a kind of inner voice (n&ptam). Consciousness, 
its meaning, nature and significance are aroused in a 
primordial sense by the inner voice- The luminous character 
of experience is in contrast to the darkness of pre-f xperience 
and the presence of inner speech is the first evolute of 
bhindu or suddha 



Umapati Sivam explains the evolution of speech in the 
following way. Speech in its original pure form is called 
subtle (suksma vak) which has two characteristics, [it exists 
as a sound in the k&rana sanra and makes knowledge possible- 
Three forms of speech i.e., pasyantj, madhyam^ and vaikarj 
evolve from suksma v&k. While the three forms are destroyed, 
v&k persists in suddha raa^a. A reference to sukstna 

is to be found in the SivajSana Siddhiyar (1-22). One 



72 

who is able to see stiJcsma v&k as it is, as a result of 
merit gained through the penances, will enjoy the great 
happiness of suddha m%y&. Pa&janti, like the contents of 
the peahen's egg, which do not show the five colours which 
are to be manifested later, contains the elements as well 
as the patterns of differentiation of sounds- It resides in 
thought and is responsible for indeterminate knowledge. 

Madhyama, the next form is different from pajyantj and 
vaikarl and is in between the two- It helps to form deter- 
minate knowledge in the mind of one who utters it and is 
not heard externally. It is heard only by oneself (Le , subvo- 
cally). Pr&$a vayu does not act upon it, but udana vayu 
only acts upon it- It is not scattered by striking against 
teeth, lips, palate and tongue. Existing in a subtle form of 
sound internally and differentiation of letters are the two 
characteristics of madhy^m^ 11 The last form of speech is 
called vaikari which can be heard by him who utters it 
and by him who hears the utterance. It has also the 
capacity to express what is thought It has two characteri- 
stics, (i) It helps to create determinate knowledge for both 
the speaker and hearer and (ii) it acts in the following 
way; the letters are impelled by ud%na at the madhayamz 
state and are differentiated* Prs&a vzyu which is directed 
by ahank&ra acts on this state i-e., madhyamz so that the 
sound may be clearly heard by both the speaker and 
hearer. This denotes the intended meaning and is the very 
symbol of communication The four stages through which 
the word unfailingly developed, are due ultimately to the 
action of Divine power. These stages enable the soul to 
know things to the extent of its karmic capacity. Know- 
ledge is said to come to the soul in these four stages 
and that of the five lords of the pure volutes (juddha 
tattvas) w ho energise other tottvas. There are varied accounts 
regarding this aspect in &aivagamas. We may consider here 
that Umapati's account is normative. Umapati classifies the 



73 



precise mode, of revelation through the tattvas in relation 
to the vzk. 

We may explain how the soul knows, through an analogy 
of the eye seeing objects- Light is necessary in order that 
the eye may see the objects- Now the question arises, how 
does the, light help the eye? Does it help by externally 
revealing the objects of tne eye ? or, does it help by 
pervading and manifesting light to the eye ? The answer is 
that light helps in both ways. It aids the eye by dispelling 
darkness that covers the objects- It also interpenetrate the 
eyelight and helps it to see the objects. Eyelight in the 
absence of light would still not be able to pierce the 
darkness that encircles the distant object- This implies that 
light must help externally also apart form manifesting light 
internally so that the objects may be seen. Though these 
two functions are factually simultaneous, we can however 
distinguish the one from the other. Therefore Umapati says 
that the individual has knowledge but only by the grace 
of God- Umapati follows in this respect Meykandar's phrase 
"kanA utiattaik k'lndu kattalin 9 ' Sivaj&ana, Bodham and Aru/nan- 
di's "mtittniyavellain uininru unarttuvan" Sivajn&na Siddhiyar 
4. 8). Umapati sums up the whole argument in a small 
sentence. 18 Umapati means by Grace, the help of seeing 
(kanum upakaram) that aids individual's knowledge by know- 
ing 'with' it In order that knowledge may be understanda- 
ble, it needs to be externalised so that it may result in 
the revelation of abjects. 

Regarding the help of showing (kattum upak&ram) 
Umapati Sivam says that Divine Grece operates through the 
media of word and through it of the tattvas. The five Siva 
tattvas w ork through the media of word and seven vidya 
and twenty foura^a tattvas, Before the functioning of vak 
and tattvas, the individual's cognitive and practical potent!, 
alities are obscured by impurity and the individual gets 



74 



manifestation of these potentialities through the working of 
the word (v&k) and tattvas. 



The Saivagama doctrine regarding this chain of actuation 
with Divine Grace at one end of it .and the resulting 
experience at the other end, may be described as follows : 
&iva &akti actuates the presiding deities (highly evolved 
souls) and the presiding deities actuate the &iva. tattws; 
the Swfl tottvas operate on four t;afo. The four va*a through 
the medium of *fl?a, vtdya etc., contribute to the revelation 
of individual's knowledge. This doctnine is dealt with in 
the M%p&diyam in its cosmological as well as mantra 
aspects. (M&pstfiywn p. 165). 



The tat& tattva evolved out of impure m&ya, removes, a 
little of the original bond of mala. This results in the partial 
manifestation of the soul's fc^a $*#. When the AHya aspect 
is aroused, ju&na and fccAa aspects are also manifested. 
The function of vidy& tattva is to be understood in relation 
to buddhi. What is imparted by the intellect and derived 
from the sense, have still to be intimated to the. sou}. 
Against this intermediary function, we have vidya tattva. 

Desire follows knowledge \- e., when we know about 
a thingt we desire to get the object and the actuation of 
saUi follows that of jn&na sakti. This actuation of 
aUi is responsible for general attachment towards 
things, but in strict accord with one's karma. 

The tattva of necessity (niyati) gives the fruits of karma 
to its author just like the ruler who orders the fruits of 
actions to be reaped by the doer. The tattva of time which 
takes the shape of past, present and future, makes the soul 
realise the limits of the past, experience the fruits of the 
present and feel the novelty of things to come. AH these 
tattvas act through Divine power which j s behind them. The 
condition of the soul in combination with the five tattvas 



75 

(kal&, vidyz, r&ga, b&la and niyati), which incline it to 
worldly experience, is named by scholars as the purusa 
tattva. The *ccAa, jnzna and My*, aspects of the soul are 
manifested partially in proportion to its farma. when thus 
equipped in a general way for experience i-e., when the 
soul is motivated for experience, this accomplishment itself 
is conceived as a tattva, The 6aivagamas speak of the 
uniqueness of adhvas and their purification. In the purifica- 
tion of adhvas the purusa tattva also gets purified, viz- the 
impulse to empirical experience disappears only with the 
general disappearance of the physical and psychoiogical basis 
for experience- This is brought out in adhva 



Being motivated to experience, the soul now requires 
objects so that these cognitive and practical functions may 
find scope for expression. To meet this requirement we 
have the tattvas from g"na downwards which is present in 
the embiyonic from the pratyti tattva. The guqfis are of 
three kinds : they are sattva e rajas and tamas. These three 
correspond to three modes of experience i.e., happiness, 
suffering and a feeling of insensibility- Each guna or 
constituted functions together in such a way that one of 
them predominates- Here we must remember the essential 
quality of soul as sat and cit. When the soul is associated 
with five instruments, it is called purusa tattva. The 
characterisation of soul as sadasat applies to purusa tattva 
which identifies itself with the environment and acts accordingly 
and the essential quality of the soul is <*** and <& 

Umapati Sivam says that there are countless aspects of 
guip which go to constitute the texture of empirical experience. 
Brightness and gentleness are the distinct features of tattva 
gum. Movement and exertion distinguish the rajasic gu%a* 
False conceit and impropriety are the qualities of tamos and 
their modification are nine in number- These countless aspects 
of gwna and their permutation and combination colour the 
experiences of the soul and dominate its conation, cognition, 



76 

and affection. The tamasic gwia creates interest for the 
objects through the senses. The rajastc guna makes the 
soul cling to the objects and tha suttva guna gives enlighten- 
ment about the objects. 

The tattva of buddhi which evolves when sattva predomin- 
ates and 'rajas and tamas are in subordinate position, serves 
as the unifying factor, synthesising the cguntless objects of 
knowledge in diverse ways- The buddhi tattva is also the 
ground of the inpressions of man's deeds and is the seat 
of puny a and papa With the aid of the Divine power, it 
gives rise to dispositions and determinations in which form, 
the accumulated merits and demerits are present in the soul- 
Madura! Sivaprakasar in his commentary on the forty second 
verse says that the effects of buddhi are eight in number- 
They are dharma, jn&na f vairagya, aisvarya, adharma t ajfiana, 
avair&gya and anaijvarya. We have to note that the first 
four are the positive qualities and if man is devoid of these 
due to karma and negligence, then he begins to cultivate 
the last four negative qualities. After realizing his mistakes, 
he begins to perform dharma and comes to have the firs 
four qualities and in this way the soul is tossed betweent 
the determinations of buddhi. Umapati mentions fifty such 
determinations of buddhi. (pancaczr bhav%kamumpa%nuvi]cJcum 
t&ne SP. 42) . 21 Madurai Sivaprakasar also describes how the 
six hundred and sixty four determinations are to be found 
in buddhi tattva. From dharma ten determinations, from jMna 
one hundred and eighty, and sixty four determinations, are 
to be found in vairagya. In the same way aisvarya, adharma t 
a\nana f avairagya and anaisvarya have one hundred and 
seventy six, thirty eight, thirty eight, hundred and eight 
respectively. The commentator says that there are differences 
.regarding the number of determinations of buddhi in &aivagamas m 

The ahankara tattva is the moving force behind the 
breathing process which constitutes the centre for the 
psychological organism. It is an evolute of rajas element of 



77 



buddhi and serves as the cause of overwhelming egoism 
which hardly quits the soul and forms an inseparable part 
of the soul. Its nature is to make us feel that there is none like 
me in the world who is equal to me (yan aladu pirarouvar 
enaiyoppar puviyinillai SP, 43). When the senses (impelled 
by the soul) enjoy the objects, ahankara, rises and wills 
that it will help in deciding the nature of the objects. 

The m&nas tattva is that which in the form of desire 
jmpells the senses to get hold of objects. Its function is 
thought and perpetual motion. The manus does the mediating 
role between the outer senses and buddhi. Umapati is 
inclined to treat citta as an independent taMv* against the 
stage of vitalpa in perception. Thus according to Cintanai 
urai (p. 794-795), Umapati Sivam enumerates the three internal 
functions of manas t buddki and guni in answer to the 
three specific modes of icchz, jnana and krtya aspects of 
empirical experience. 22 



Umapati Sivam next gives an account of the five-fold 
senses, the motor organs and the five elements- The five 
senses are associated with the five tattvas against the function 
of vision, audition, olfaction, taste and touch whose 
physiological counterparts are respectively eye, ear, nose, 
tongue and skin. Likewise there are the five tattvas associated 
with the motor organs situated in the mouth, foot hand, 
excretory and sex organs in answer to the functions of 
speaking, walking, handling, ejecting and enjoying. The five 
physical elements beginning with ether attach themselves 
to the ear, the skin, the eye, the tongue and the nose 
and aid in the perception of sense objects. Thus the five 
elements aid in the sensory experiences of the embodied 
soul- In the external world ether permenantly accommodates 
the other elements, air causes movement * and heaping of 
hings, fire burns and unifies things, water cools and softens 



78 



them and earth, the primary element hardens and bears 
objects, 28 

Thus there are thirty six tattvas of which five are pure 
($uddha) t seven are mixed (yuddhasuddha) and twenty four 
impure (ayuddha). Mayeya is a generic name for these 
tattvas. It is mayey* mala that causes sense of agency, 
'karma gives enjoyment, may5 provides material embodiment. 
The thirty six tattvas come to stay in response to this need 
as a common medium through which the Divine sakti 
energises the pasa. The soul undergoes a long course of 
misery of birth and death and in this process* it is associa- 
ted with these tattvas. When the soul quits the body, it 
casts its body off like a snake discarding its slough, and 
like a young bird breaking through the shell of the egg and 
like a change of personality in a dream. 24 Even though the 
gross body is thrown off, the soul remains identified with 
the subtle body- Instruments like kal*, niyati, Ma etc., are 
constituents of the subtle body- With this subtle body, the 
soul travels to other regions and comes back to the earth, 
by the will of God after duly reaping the fruits of its k^rma. 

Umapati sivam then describes the various sources of 
birth and the categories of living beings. The sources of 
birth are of four kinds, namely the egg, the sweat, the 
vegetable roots and the placenta-born and the categories of 
living beings are seven in number. 

The plant kingdom 19 hundred thousand varieties. 

The creeping creation 15 ir 

The celestial group 11 

The creatures in water 10 

The birds 10 

The beasts on earth 10 

The mankind 9 

Total 84 



79 



Thus all the seven make up a total of eighty foui 
hundred thousand varieties- 25 Thus the soul transmigrates in 
cyclic succession into all these myriads of birth. It takes 
its birth in qne or other of these forms, acquires karma by 
committing bad deeds and omitting good deeds and eats 
the fruits of previous karma. Thanks to the initiative of the 
Divine grace (Tirodhayi), the sou! is subject to empiric a 
life and experience in the kevala and saJcala avasth&s. Thus 
the soul is caught in the sea of births and deaths- 

&uddh&vastha : Umapati Sivam speaks of the historic 
transition from empirical experience to a state of existence in 
which the empirical nature becomes purified and transformed. 
This is technically called juddh&vasthz and involves trans* 
figuration in the functions of Grace, from the phase of 
screening indignation to one sweeping benevolence, (murci- 
namaruvu tirddhayi kariLnaiy&gi SP 48)- The soul undergoes 
the misery of birth and death repeatedly. When the store 
of past karmas attaching to the soul, the set of karmas 
pertaining to the present birth and the aggregate of karmas 
bidding for the future birth are all balanced alike so as to 
be terminated in a single birth, the state of imvinaioppu 
(the state of indifference towards the effects of good and 
bad deeds) occurs. When the soul attains spiritual maturity, 
the soul is no longer affected by pleasure - pain experiences. 
It gets an attitude of indifference towards the fruits of 
actions and not to the actions themselves. When this 
happens, the concealing grace of God underlying sakalavastha 
and directing the empirical existence of the soul, ceases to 
conceal the soul, but begins to reveal it* This is technically 
called the Descent of Divine Grace- 
After explaining bondage and liberation and the cate- 
gories involved in the account, Umapati Sivam proceeds to 
explain the spiritual fife and its ingredilnts in relation to 
the previous account which he terms as the general (podu). 
The account that deals with the spiritual life is called the 



80 

true or the real (iinmai] t The distinction that he makes 
between 'the general' and 'the true' is explained in the 
penultimate verse of Sivaprakasam** The general and the 
true estimates are those of the standpoints from the pers- 
pective of bondage and liberation. So Umapati Sivam means 
by 'the true account', to look at the system from the 
standpoint of spiritual life and he describes in the tfjjwa*' 
part the nature of the soul (52-59 verses,) the five states 
(60-62 verses), the mode of enlightening the soul (63-67), 
the nature of Divine light and its use (69-89^ the holy 
name of God (90-92) and the nature of realization and of 
the released soul (93-98)- Umapati Sivam says that the truth 
about the soul that could be known from its own experience 
is its embodiment- It remains in the body that constitutes, 
as it were, an inseparable part of it. (udaluf manni SP 52). 
Staying in the body, it gets hold of object which is known 
through the senses and has the experience of knowing it 
through the internal organs, and immerses or sinks into 
experiences. According to Cidambaranada Munivar, some men 
give another version of this fact. The soul first knows the 
object through the instruments beginning with kala and then 
through the internal organs and senses* it sinks into experi- 
ences. The fact of 'sinking into experience' is common to 
both the fettered and the free condition of the soul. It 
does not know that it knows with the help of these 
instruments, but assumes that it knows directly without any 
mediation of the tattoos. From this state of .knowledge* it 
stands separated, undergoes states of consciousness from 
wakeful awareness to dream, from dream to sleep, and 
from sleep to states below even the biological leVel* Then 
owing to the insiduousness of mala, jt goes to a state 
which constitutes the nether limit to consciousness. Umapatj 
terms the state of at - one - ness with mala, the transcen- 
dental (atitam) state of the soul and says that the goal of 
spiritual freedom is to be attained through spiritual life- 
The spiritual life must be thought of as at-one-ment with 



81 

the Divine light, standing at the end of the scale, consti- 
tuting the transcending destiny of the individual. 

The presumption that is made in the account of the 
soul is that neither the body nor the senses that belong 
to the body, nor the internal organs that help the sou! to 
know the object, nor even the bio - motor principle of life 
(pra&a) that impels and actuates the soul, can be the soul. 
They are all species of bondage, being evolutes and exten- 
sion of may a. There is an intelligent soul that knows 
through them with their assistance. Explaining the point 
underlying the presumption, Umapati says that body as 
such is senseless matter (uru Unar vilamai yanum SP 52) 
and begins to function only with the association of the soul. 
Each sense perceives a different phenomenon and perceives 
not what the other senses know, (ororu palangaiaga maruvi 
ninraridalanum SP 52). The mental faculty acting upon the 
result of sensation functions co - operatively i. e., each one 
is restricted to its function and supplements that of the 
other. Even though the bio-motor force i. e., prana under- 
lies the physical and psychical functions* it is non-intelli- 
gent- The soul is different from these instruments and is 
subject to the necessity of embodiment because of its 
association with the 



Umapati Sivam then takes up the question whether the 

soul is intelligent by itself. The question may take the 

form ; is the intelligent soul a conscious principle different 

from the non-conscious matter ? If it is, then it does not 

require accessories like senses to reveal the objects to the 

soul, (arivenil vdyil venda SP 54).tf \t is said, on the other 

hand, that it is non-conscious by itself, what is the use 

of accessories and instruments to such a soul, they being 

in no better position ? (anrenil avaitam ennai SP 54). Can 

these material accessories supply intelligence to a non- 

Sntelfigent soul, even by the will of God ? It is not concei- 

vable, for they are themselves non-intelligent and their 



82 



function as avenues are made possible because of the 
intelligent scul. It is again inconceivable that God vouchsafes 
intelligence to the soul, for that would imply that the soul 
is non-intelligent and is on par with the non-intelligent 
matter- Why should God vouchsafe knowledge to one kind 
of non-intelligent matter and not to the other ? 

The soul is an intelligent entity and its intelligence is 
obscured by Impurity. This Impurity is removed by God's 
Grace Thus though the soul is obscured by Impurity, it 
belongs to the class of intelligent beings. Thongh the sou! 
is a knowing agent whatever it knows in the light of its 
knowledge is csar in character. Sat is defined precisely as 
that which is not known by mere knowledge neither by 
sense conditioned discursive knowledge (pa$a jnana) nor by 
the finite knowledge of the sou! (pasu jnana). It is only 
by means of transcendent knowledge that God can be 
known. 27 The infinite can be known only by knowledge 
that is revealed to the finite soul. The knowledge that is 
native to the finite soul by definition, cannot know the 
infinite and is incapable of it. It is comparable to the light 
that belongs to retina which, with the help of external 
light illumining objects, is able to perceive. Umapati Sivam 
then gives the difference between the knowledge of the 
soul and that of the Infinite- The knowledge of the soul 
is categorised and limited by considerations of space and 
time, and also by the circumstance that it identifies itself 
with each of the subject that it knows so that knowledge 
becomes a determining factor in influencing the character 
of the knower-knowing each thing by being that (onrai 
mundi aduvaduvfikak k&num arivu k&n SP 55). From this 
it is clearly shown that what the soul can know with its 
finite-intelligence is the changing and the perishable, and 
not the unchanging Reality. 

Then Umapati Sivam proceeds to the task of determining 
which knowledge knows asat as osat. Surely it is not 



83 

soul's knowledge (pafu jnzna) independently as held by 
\svara avik^ra v%din, without the aid of accessories derived 
from asat. (uyir ariy&du SP56). God, the infinite knows 
infinitely and cannot have finite discursive knowledge. It 
cannot also be the sensory knowledge, (p&sa jn&na) as 
proposed by Slvasama valin for the obvious reason that 
it is a species of non-intelligence, Again it cannot a!so 
be said that a combination of p<*su jnana and poia, jri&na 
may know as at as advocated by Sivasankr&ntha v&din (avi 
cevviya karuvi kudir r*rivur& SP 56). What cermet know in 
its own independent light and what by definition cannot 
act except as actuated by the soul, cannot combine, neither 
having the needed initiative to do it. Some Saiva philoso- 
phers hold that Grace of the Lord and the soul know a sat . 
Umapati Sivam replies that when the soul joins with Grace, 
then it is the case of freedom from mala and in that 
case, asm i.e., universe may not be seen. Lastly Umepat 
replying to the view of fsvara Alkya vadin says that even 
a combination of finite knowledge and infinite transcendent 
knowledge cannot know asat f because such combination is 
not conceivable. As the finite knowledge of the soul is 
tainted by mala, it cannot combine with Grace (armir cera). 
tf is only when soul's knowledge is purified of the defects 
of finitude which arises due to association with P&sa that 
*t can unite with the untained light of God. 

The last alternative in this connection is that the finite 
knowledge, in combination both with the sense-conditioned 
knowledge (p&& jnana) and transcendent knowledge (patj 
jnana) knows asat. Umapati Sivam says that it is as in- 
conceivable as, space, which is tha locus of both light 
and darkness, being in combination with both at the same 
time- Light and darkness reside in space, which is in 
combination with either of the two only at a given time, 
in Tiruvarutpayan Umapati Sivann says that there are objects. 
In the world which become dark in darkness and visible 



84 

in light- L ' s Likewise even though finite knowledge (pa$u 

./iia) is the locus of both the transcendent and sense 

knowledge, it is only with either of the two at a given 
time that the finite knowledge is united. 

Umapati Sivam considers this analogy of light and 
darkness in space to be very significant and he repeatedly 
uses this analogy in many of his works- in the work 
called "Pina Venba" (interogating) Umapati Sivam says that 
fight and darkness being opposite cannot unite in the same 
place. 29 Do they not fall apart by their very nature? How 
do we conceive their togetherness? The reply is to be found 
in the fact that their togetherness is meaningful from the 
perspective of the eye r which experience both darkness and 
light. 

In 'kodikkjvi' Umapati Sivam states : light and 
darkness have the same locus and when one gains 
sunrrmacy, the other 'hides', nevertheless it is also a 
fact that of the two, darkness has no parity with the light 30 
It cannot persist or even be in the presence of light- The 
predicament of the scui is of this nature. God's revelatory 
knowledge shines in the soul as a Light within the light 
snd yet the soul is bathed in the darkness of the triple 
malas. Umapati says in Tiruvarutpayan that like the ow* 
which connot see even in bright sunlight, the soul cannot 
perceive God due to ifs association with mala. 31 The predi- 
cament itself implies the solution that it should riumpht 
over darkness by consciously uniting with light. The light 
is already accessible in the soul and the soul is not aware 
of the light before the dawn of Grace. 

Then the question arises what then is the answer if none 
of the species of knowledge in themselves or in permuta- 
tion and combination can know asat m ' Madurai Sivaprakasar 
says that the soul knows asat after being informed by the 
Lord and refers to the verse beginning with ('tannarivadanal 



85 



SP 72') whhh emphasises that the sou! knows with the 
help of the Lord- The author of Cintanai urai feels that 
the answer is given in verse 69, which speaks about the 
nature of intelligence (pannirangavarum SP 69). The crystal 
reflects the colours with which it comes into contact. The 
crystal has its own light which makes it possible to reflect 
the colours. The colours, as it were, dominate over crystal's 
Sight and make it only reflect thamselves There is a hidden 
condition that is responsible for the rejection of colours in 
^he crystal i-e-, sunlight which is different from both the 
crystal and the colours. What the sunlight does is to make 
free the crystal from the encircling darkness so that it is 
possible for the crystal to reflect. Sunlight, as it were, 
confers the reflectiog capacity to the crystal. It confers on 
the colours the nature of being reflected by delivering them 
from the shackles of darkess. Umapati also says that as 
the crystal reflects itself and several colours in the light 
of the sun, so the world is related to the light of the 
Lord. 32 The sun's rays effect this deliverance by its mere 
presence, without being involved in or bound by what it 
reveals. In the same way knowledge about God is the 
common factor which makes it possible for the soul to 
know and for the objects to be disclosed through the 
accessories* Divine light is not affected by either or them" 
Bv its sheer will (sankalpd) it becoms possible for them 
to function in that way. We call it gracious will because it 
enables the soul to reach its appointed destiny just as the 
sunlight enables the crystal to function- The soul knows 
with the help of instruments which are evolutes of mayo. 
God is responsible for the working of the evolutes of m&ya 
for sake of the soul. Thus we know the help of God for 
the soul in the state of bondage- If it is the case in the 
state of bondage, it is more true in the state of release. 
To the question about finite knowledge we find an explana- 
tion here- The Divine Sakti makes finite knowledge possible 
without surrendring its own fulness i- e. , without itself 



86 



parttaking of the nature of finitude. When the soul knows 
through perception, inference and verbal testimony, its 
intelligence is the pramdna. Even though tne soul is a 
knowing being, its nature is such that it needs the help 
of an omniscient b<-ing. Thus atwa ci<$akti as illumined by 
Siva cWakti is pramana. Meykandar says that the soul 
knows as informed by God- "U9artha uraarthalin 
T SB ill Sutra). 



Umapati Sivam elaborates the nature of soul as distingui- 
shed from non-intelligent paga and also from self luminous 
God. The soul is associated with the instruments of maya by 
Pati and this is not known to the soul- We may compare the 
soul in this respect to the eye. The eye that is enveloped h 
darkness is itself not darkness. Likewise when it perceives vu.h 
the help of light, it is not itself light. The eye as such is necess- 
arily of a nature different from that of darkness and light- Like 
wise the knowing soul is of a nature diiferent from that of sat, 
ie., God and also different from pa$a i-e-, asat. By association 
with jar it gains knowledge- With the help of the latter, it 
overcomes ignorance-generating association of pa*a. (asattaic 
cattudaninru nTkkum SP 57). Because of the variable relation- 
ship with sat and asat, the soul is called sadasai. Umapati 
arrives at this truth by an argument through elimination and he 
follows his predecessors in this respect The asat does not know 
sat as 'this is &<*t' r The sat even though of the nature of pure- 
intelligence need not know <* &at as 'this is <*sai' to be freed 
^rom it, because the sat is always free from mat. 33 Therefore 
there is an order of reality different from sat and asat which 
knows them as 'this is sat' and 'this is asat' and this is the soul 
which is called 



In this connection, we must remember the criticism levelled 
against Siddhanta by Schomeurs and Violet Paranjoti that the 
soul has no essential character of its own and is only the creat- 
ure of circumstances all the time and even in release, Siva is 
content with the change of form on the Part of the soull 3 * Is 



87 



the state of the sou! in release in any way different from that 
of a whited sepulchre, which indeed appears beautiful outward 
bm is within full of dead men's bones and of all uncleanness? 3 * 
Schomerus alleges another defect viz- that the soul's inmost 
nature in all the state is sadasai, v. A- Devesenapathi answered 
these criticisms by freely quoting from the standard com- 
mentary on the Sivajnana Bodham. 36 As capable of being 
in a relation of non - difference (advaita) with the objects 
with which it is associated, the soul is classified in six 
ways as bhutatma, antaratma r tativatma, j\vatma t maniaraima 
and paramatma. But of these six, the first five are indicative 
of the artificial states of the soul, characterised by delimiting 
adjuncts. It is only the sixth that reveals the essential 
nature of the soul on account of the soul belonging to the 
same clase as Siva- Atman means pervasive, eternal intelli- 
gence- The vadas and the Agamas declare the soul to be 
pervasive. The finite soul is not an attribute of a subs- 
tance, but is itself a substance like the Lord- It is of the 
form of Intelligence i-e, its intelligence is not achieved or 
brought into existence at some particular time- The Vedas 
and the Agamas were brought into existence because soul 
is an intelligent being and can make use of these. 

The soul is really intelligent, it is only figurative that 
it is called inert (as associated with purusa tattva which 
takes on the colour of its environment). While the internal 
organs are intelligent as compared with what is lower than 
themselves, and inert as compared with what is highe r 
than themselves the finite soul is veryware (tuirfrr(j}ib) O r 
in all contexts intelligent. Though it is essentially intelligent 
there is difference between itself and the Lord. The soul 
has to merge in the objects to understand them (a\undi 
andal) (^(tp/M <&$&&>) whereas the Lord knows all things 
as they are without such merging. 

The soul which is sat f 5s obscured by anava with 
which it has no affinity. Because the capacity of the sou 1 



is rendared if ef : ective, It exists like asat. When at the time 
of release, obscuration is removed, its capacity being made 
manifest the soul has a right to the enjoyment of Siva's 
bliss without the possibility of being obscured again and 
never changing in its nature afterwards. Hence it comes to 
be called as sadasat. When the soul has a manifested it 
has knowledge and as an intelligent being, it is sat s when 
it does not have a manifester, it does not have knowledge 
and is therefore asat. This is not anekantavada, because we 
arel not predicating opposite qualities simultaneously, soul's 
condition in the state of bondage indicates its general 
nature/ and its condition in the state of release shows its 
special or essential nature, 



In verse 57, Umapati uses the term "or sottu' 
for the individual soul. 37 Generally commentators take the 
word "or* as an article meaning one, but Cidambaranada 
Munivar takes the phrase to mean 'an intelligent substance' 
and says that it distinguishes itself from p%sv and Siva. 
Umapati explaining the same idea in a different context (SP 72) 
says that for the individual soul, there is no knowledge 
whatever by its own native intelligence- That is to say that 
by its own light, it cannot know anything unaided by any 
manifester. The implication here suggested is that whatever 
the soul knows, it knows only with the help of the outside 
help and that it is not an independent knower- Umapati 
%ys that the soul is constitutionally limited and even when 
it is aided by infinite knowledge, it knows only finitely i e-* 
discursively. That is to say, it knows a thing to the exclusion 
of all other things and comprehends things in its experience 
oje by one, (tannarivakaellam tani tani payanarundum SP 72) 
just as even when the all pervasive day* light Is available 
for the eye, it can see 'each' only in succession. The visual 
sense despite the unlimited character of illumination is 
limited in its vision severely to its 'span'- 

If it is said that the eye has no sight without the 
aid of external light, then the &ivadvaitin feels that the 



89 



eye has no native light of its own It is outer light that 
gives or reflects the light to the eye. In the same way 
the Divine sakti gives knowledge to the soul and reveals 
objects. This is the position of Qivadvaita .** Arguing agains t 
this, Umapati Sivam says that if the outerlight supplies the 
light to the eye* it amounts to saying that the eye wa s 
devoid of light intially. This position is not tenable for th e 
following two reasons. At first even if the external light is 
supplied, it is only the eye that 'sees' it and not the 
other senses. Secondly even if the outer light is supplied, 
if the eye is blind, it does not see despite the aid of 
outer light. Thus by the method of elimination it is seen 
that there is intrinsic light in the eye which helps in 
seeing. 

At this stage Umapati Sivam appeals to one's own 
experience Objects which are in light are perceivable to 
the eye which remains outside the illumined object. The 
fact that the eye is able to perceive objects while itself 
encircled in darkness lends plausible support to the 
presumption that the eye is itself a species of light- we 
may not ask the question why the eye which is itself a 
light , does not dispense wich outer light for its functioning- 
For example , why does it not peer through darkness and 
perceive objects even when the latter is not illumined by 
light? The eye even though a species of light is precisely 
of such nature as to depend on illumination of external 
light, without mingling with the elemental light, the 
sensory light does not perceive and this is what defines 
its nature. Umapati Sivam distinguishes two functions of 
light. It pervades objects by illumining them i.e., by 
dispelling the darkness enveloping them. While this is a 
necessary function for perceiving ob;eot% it is however not 
sufficient. The outer light must mingle with the light of 
the eye and ,show> to it the objects that has been unveiled 
from darkness- 39 This is the second and necessary 
function. The Divine Sakti aids the soul's knowledge in 



90 



both these ways, what is more specifically suggested by 
this analogy is that the sou! has knowledge in its own 
right- Its knowledge is of such nature that it is dependent 
on the Divine source of revealation- 

Umapati Sivam concludes his account of the nature of 
soul by pointing out the defects of many theories.* Umapati 
refutes the theory thet the soul is atomic in dimension 
and is located at some point rather than other in the body 
(the standpoint of *mrti$) m He also refutes the the theory 
that it is pervasive of the entire body which it fills 
and is therefore medium dimension* neither atomic nor 
infinite , but of variable sizes varying with the bodies in 
which it dwells, (the concept of the Jainas). He also 
refutes the view of the Aikya vadin who says that the 
soul is all pervasive and as such capable of knowing 
everything. All the theories are rejected on the ground that 
the soul is a knower, but is subject to the five uvasth%s 
i< 6-, it knows only as subject to the five avastk&s. This 
is the one sfngle argument Umapati Sivam has in mind 
when he suggests the true nature of the soul on the 
model of the reflecting crystal (unmai oil tarum upalam polum 
SP 59). He also criticises other theoies of soul that it is immu- 
table consciousness itself as advocated by the Sivasamavadin 
and not a conscious subject of atomic or infinits dimension. He 
also dismisses the theory of Vaise?ika which holds that the soul 
is non-intelligent something and intelligence is produced in the 
soul by intervention of something external to the soul, All these 
theories are incompatible with the experiential fact that tne 
soul knows, but as subject to avasthas- The true nature of the 
soul is that it is like a pure reflecting crystal which has its own 
luminosity which enables jt to reflect colours by m0ans of the 
presence of light. This fact is exemplified in one's experience 
which ranges between two extremes of wakeful alertness in 
association with senses etc.* and sleepy unconsciousness with 
out the senses- Umapati says in Tiruvarutpayan that it is a 



91 



misnomer to call the soul as consciousness or knowledge 
what merely reflects and will not perceive without the aid 
of the senses. 41 The soul's pervasiveness and knowledge 
must be understood in the light of its determining charac- 
teristic suggested by the analogy of crystal. It is allpervasive 
but not like the all pervasive presence of God which is 
everywhere and nowhere in particular- The soul's presence 
or pervasion is proportionate to its identification with the 
instruments. 

After explaining the nature of the sou!, Umapati 
proceeds to explain the nature and function of karyava$ih$.$. 
Avastha is a state of the soul- Causal states (Jcdrana avas- 
thas) are kev jla f salcala and iuddJu. in relation to the 
causal states, effect-states like waking, dream, sleep, etc. 
are explained- Though Umapati has to speak of spiritual 
life (suddhavastha] only in the u&mai part, he justifies his 
reference to empirical experience by * looking upon knowing 
act as spiritual in character- There will be incentive to strive 
for the removal of pofa only after knowing the nature of 
pa$a. In relation to the bondage of pasa, every cognitive 
act may be looked upon as spiritual, as effecting howeve r 
partially the removal of p&sz. Umapati Sivam says that 
empirical experience is a step in the direction of purification. 42 
The Help of showing on the part of God is necessary for the 
act of knowing of the soul- Our knowledge is possible 
with the revelatory function- 43 

Umapati Sivam explains the concept of knowing or know- 
ledge through various states called avasthas, before proceeding 
to explain the mode of enlightening the soul- Even though 
the soul is spirit, its nature as a knowing subject is 
determined by its immediate identification with the instru- 
ments of maya. 44 In the Icevalavastha the soui is severed 
from the instruments and it stands finitized by Qnva. It is 
reactuated through the material accessories in the sakala- 
vastha. The soul stands identified with different centres or 



92 



locations in the body moving from one centre to another 
and is subject to various experiences. The soul experiences 
various states of consciousness (avastk&s) and these avasth&s 
help the soul to get knowledge. 

In Sivajfiana Siddhiyar the account of avasth&s is given 
in the descending order i e., from the eye-brow to the 
muladhzna. |n Sivajnana Bodham the account is given in the 
ascending order i.e., from mul&dh&ra to eye brow. Umapati 
Sivam follows Sivajnana Bodham by stating the wasthz? 
from the nether side, beginning with mlzdh%ra. In mladh&ra 
the soul is bound in a state where it is devoid of cogni- 
tion, conation and affection and is barely itself, ((kevalam 
tannunmai, Sivajnana siddhiyar 4-37). it is the state where the 
soul does not have any senseation- Umapati says that being in 
a state of ignorance, there is no instrument except puru&a 
tattva. We can say that this state is below even the 
biological level and in this state the soul would look like 
a non-living material object There is however bliss in this 
state, but this bfiss is not pure- It is the bliss of pwu$a 
in association with the evolutes of prakrti. (mayaltan vavir- 
ril. Sivajn&na Siddhiyar 2-63) . In the next higher state of 
experience, vital air functions, and this is intelligible in the 
state of tufty a and the soul is located in the navel- This 
marks the advent of experience in the most rudimentary 
biological sense- In the next higher state, viz. the state of 
sleep, another factor is present i-e., the enquiring faculty of 
mind called titte and this is located in the heart Experience 
now acquires the state of sleepy awareness and this is 
possible because of the presence of incipient mind. 4 " In the 
next higher state viz- dream the five objects ef sense and 
of action, the three internal organs i.e., mind (manas) 
Judgement (buddhi) and will (ahank&ra) along with nine 
kinds of air (besides prano) act The five gateways * of 
knowledge and action will operate in the state of waking 
consciousness- These act throngh the medium of outer 



93 



elements. 48 The point to be noted here is that the outer 
elements do not come into operation actually. If they do/ 
there will be no difference between wakeful ness as a mo- 
ment of kevala (apratibh-a j&grat) now considered by Umapat' 
and wakefulness as a moment of sakala (sapratibh& j&grat) 
about to be considered. The centre of experience is said to 
be mid-brow in the forehead. 



These facts may 
following table. 



be explained with the help of the 



S.No- State No. of instruments. 



location. Nature 



1. Jagrat 



35. i.e., 

JnSnendriyas (Five 
organe of sense)kanmen- 
driyas (Five organs of 
action) (Sabda, spansa, 
r#pa, rasa, skhanda) 
vacana, gamana, dana, 
visaraga, ananda, puru?a r 
pra/ta, citta, manas, 
buddhi, ahankara, nine 
kinds of air- 



mid fullcon- 

brow scious 
ness. 



throat dream 



2, Svapna 25 i.e., 

Sabda, spar-sa, r#pa, rasa 
skhanda, vacana, gamana 
dana, visarga, ananda r 
purusa, pr%a, citta, 
manal, buddhi, ahankara, 
nine kinds of air. 



3. Su?upti 3 i-e, 

puru?a, prana and citta heart sleep 



94 



S. No 


State 


No. of instruments- 


location 


Nature 


4. 


Tunya 


2ie, 


navel 


the soul 






puru?a and prawa 




barely 










exists- 


5. 


turfy 47 




mwiad- 


The soul 




atita 


puru?a- 


h&ra 


is like a 










non-living 










material 










object- 



Ilakkanam Cidamaranada Munivar explains these states 

by giving examples. The five states are comparable to the 

five states of an iron ball when it is heated- The ball o, 

iron is red hot when it is in contact with fire. This state 

may be compared to jagrat where the soul has ful 

consciousness. In the second state the ball of iron is red 

(i.e., glowing) even after it is removed from fire. In the 

same way in the state of dream* there is consciousness in 

the soul even after the five organs of sense and the five 

organs of action have stopped functioning. It is like a man 

feeling a whirling sensation even after he has stopped 

whirling on his toes; a man seeing an elephant with his 

eye, after he has come away in fear, from a place where 

he saw an elephant. These two also serve as examples 

for the dream state- The difference between the waking and 

dream is that, the soul is in actual contact with the objects 

f n the waking state, while i is not so in the case of dream 

The impressions of the object remain in the dream state. 

In tha third state, the temperature of the iron ball is decreasing 

and there is a tings of heat in it- The second example for 

the third state (susupti) j s the difficulty of the eye to see 

objects just after a flash of lightening. In the fourth state 

t here is no action except that of prana and this may b e 

compared to the inability of the eye to see objects after a 

flash of lightning and the state of the iron ball which ha s 



95 



all but lost its light and heat and which has only a tinge 
of heat- In th ) fifth state called turiyztlta the soul is like 
a non-living material object and this may be compared to 
the iron ball which has lost all its heat and it is like the 
eye of the blind man enveloped by complete darkness. These 
five states are called kevala m sakala or &7/a avasths. 



Umapati Sivam proceeds to explain the five states that 
occur in the jagrat state itself- When the sou! experiences 
the five avasthas by going from eye- brow to mul&dh&ra 
then five states occur in jagrat itself and the five states 
are called kzrya sakala or sakala in sakala or madhyalu- 



After explaining how the soul knows through the 
ayasthas* Umapati proceeds to explain how God's intelligence 
enlightens the soul which is the central topic of spiritual 
realization- He explains how determinate knowledge arises 
for the soul through the operation of eighteen factors. 
These eighteen are : one of the five-fold senses (e.g. eye in 
seeing) one is the five-fold gross elements which helps in 
our knowledge (e.g. light which helps the eye in seeing), 
four internal senses which mediate between objects and the 
soul, the interior internal senses beginning with ka\a (kala 
and niyati also included)* which form an inseparable vesture 
of the soul and five Siva tattvas in their varied combinations 
which stimulate experience. Umapati says that when the 
soul experiences an object, it does so with the help of 
this aggregate of eighteen factors- without these factor s 
functioning and without the enlightenment bestowed by 
God r the soul will not know anything- 48 Umapati sivam 
says significantly that this functioning of the aggregate of 
eighteen factors is again inconceivable without the light of 
t he intelligent soul whom they help- Since these factors 
are non-intelligent they do not initiate the knowing process 
but they require the intelligent presence of the individual 
soul- i9 This aggregate thus serves as the helping factor 
when the soul knows the object- 50 



96 

The soul which has no knowledge for itself cannot 
grasp or appropriate the tattvas. Therefore the tattvas which 
are non-intelligent, have much less knowledge for them- 
selves and cannot attach themselves to the soul- It is 
therefore seen by elimination that it is only through they 
intelligence of God who has knowledge for Himself, that the 
soul is enabled to experience all things. 

God's help in helping the soul to know all things 
is not only at the time of creation when God creates 
from maya the body senses etc. and endows the 
soul with them, but also in every act of knowledge 
Umapati Sivam refers to the revelatory function that is 
necessary for knowledge. This is not merely ture with 
respect to supra-emperical experience where the means of 
Divine assistance is consciously acknowledged, but also with 
respect to empirical experience where the knowing soul 
comes to have association with an aggregate of tattvas. This, 
Divine assistance as the hidden factor of enlightement with 
the aggregate of tattvas t js a necessary presupposition. The 
point that Umapati Sivam makes in distinguishing God from 
man as having "knowledge for one self and not having 
it, is to make clear that (i) the non-intelligent tattvas have 
no function without the presence of the soul and that (ii) 
the soul has no function by itself because it has no 
"knowledge for itself even though it comes into association 
with the instruments and becomes one tattva among other 
tattvas . it is on account of this fact the soul is accounted 
as a puru&a tattva. Though the soul is spirit, it has the 
complexion and form of tattva e because it is notf ree- Thus 
we find that God's help is necessary even for empirical 
experience. 51 

When the soul knows a thing, the initiative for know- 
ledge does not lie with it If it is stated that just as the 
soul employs the senses (through the mind) for knowing 
a thing, it uses God's knowledge for the purpose' then 



97 



such an icba will imply that the sou* is the master and 
Divine wisdom is only an in ~tru riant in its! hand- The 
author of Cintanai urai says that eight factors are necessary 
for soul's knowledge apart from Siva sakti. 52 They are 
alma tattva, tfittvikas (ie-, instilments made from tattoos) 
three instruments kala, vidija and raga which manifest soul's 
intelligence, action and affection, the k%la tattva, the 
gross body (sthula sarira) f the instruments of valid know- 
ledge and the four kinds of speech (vak). The Sivadvaitm 
says that God is the master and He knows and experiences 
the objects for the sake of the soul- This statement makes 
6S little sense as saying that on behalf of one who is 
hungry another can eat the food- Umapati meets the question 
with a resourceful analogy, when the sun rises and removes 
the darkness that encircles the object, the people grasp the 
objects which thev were longing to see in the night. 1 n 
the same way when God removes darknsss that hides the 
soul with the help of instruments like kala. then the soul 
grasps and appropriates the object for itself without any 
thought of Grace that works inside causing the combination 
of the tattvas with the soul. Just as the people da not 
remember the help given by the sun to remove the 
darkness, the soul also does not remember the importance 
of God's grace in giving the instruments like kala to the soul. 

In using this analogy, Umapati seeks to answer many 
questions that arise in understanding God as the inner en- 
lightening factor of experience. If God also knows and experi- 
ences to make it possible for the soul to know and 
experience, in what way is the soul different from God? 
will He not be subject to the imperfections that pertain to 
the soul? If it is said that there is no knowledge and 
experience for the soul without God, then it amounts to 
the fact that the soul by its own nature is devoid of 
knowledge. It by the grace of God the soul is made to 
eat the fruits of its karma, does it not mean that God is 
cruel in subjecting the soul to the experience of karma? 



98 



Lastly the question arises, if God knows in order that the 
soul may know, is He also not affected by the joy and 
sorrow acctuing from such experience? When the senses 
perceive objects because of the indewelling light of the 
soul, it is the soul and not the senses that own the 
pleasurable and painful experiences. On this analogy God 
must be afflicted by these experiences and not the soul a 
The author of Cintanai urai explains the solutions to these 
question?. n3 When the sun rises, it does so surely not at 
he request of people 5uffering in darkness and demanding 
sunrise. The sun illumines the objects at its own will under 
no pressure- Secondly, it reveals the object by dispelling 
invisibility due to darkness and at the same time permeates 
the eyes that see so that the eyes may see. Thereiore ft 
does not become a substitute for the function of seeing. 
Because it is true that the eyes cannot see without sunlight, 
it does not follow that the eyes have no light of their own. 
On the contrary it Implies that the function of seeing is 
characteristic of the -eye, which the sunlight aids- Again 
while the sun provides the general condition of illumination, 
the respon c ibi ity for what the people see and experience, 
rests with the people themselves- When the sun rises at 
dawn, the people wake up from the night of invisibility 
and see whatever they want to see* In the same way 
though God provides the general condition of illumination, 
the actions of people depend on their will- Lastly, the sun 
illumines impartially and impersonally unaffected by specific 
disires of ths people and yet contributs to the fulfilment 
of their desires- The sun makes experience possible in free 
compliance with but unaffected by the desires of the people 

The pleasure and parn experience belong to the sou 
and rot to 'bs Lord who rs unaffected by them. The soul 
exp-riences the objects and is affected by them. Another 
point is also clear from this that the soul becomes more 
Godlike, the more it refrains from experience of objects- 



99 



It becomes aware of the fact of Divine help which both 
knows and shows accordingly- When the soul thus surrenders 
itself and is united with God, then God graciously takes on 
Himself the activities of the soul 54 - 

Though there is agreement between God and soul in experi- 
ence, we must not however ignore ontological difference bet 
ween the two. 55 Umapati Sivam cites the analogy of the senses 
in relation to the soul to bring out the inherent absence of equ- 
ality between God and man. The absence of equality accounts 
for and indeed constitutes their complimentary relation. The 
senses perceive things with the help of |the soul. The soul 
informs them by actively operating on them* The psychic faculties 
however do not know this fact that they perceive because of 
their identification with the soul. In the sam3 manner the i ndivi- 
dual soul knows and experiences things only because of God, 
but does not however realise its dependence on Him- 

God, however being a self-luminous spirit is all-knowing 
and also the enlightener of soul's knowledge. The knowledge 
of God is indendent and autonomons- It perceives and apper- 
ceives and initiates knowledge for the individual soul. 56 It thus 
serves as a principle which works along with the soul. The 
individual is dependent on God. 57 Umapati Sivam uses the 
expession 'the undefiled' for God and this accounts for the 
distinction that is implied in its role as the enlightener of 
knowledge. 



CONCEPTION OF A ADVA1TA IN 
SA1VA S1DDHANTA 

The Concept of Advarta plays an fmportant part rn tf 
schools of Vedanta t Umapati Sivarn begins his Sh/aprakasarn t 
saying, "We begin to expound saiva Siddhanta, the essence < 
Vedanta l " and concludes thus, "We have given the esserv 
of the teaching of the Vedas" * It is generally agreed that l\ 
'highest teaching of the Vedas i*er the Vedanta, is embodied 
the four great expressions or mahavakyas taken from the fo 
Vedas- They are:- 

1. Prajnr>am Brahma 'intelligence is Brahman' of the Aitare 

unpani?ad of the &q Veda- 
2- 'Aham Brahmasirii' 'l am Brahman' of Brhadara/?yaka upar 

?ad of the Yajur Veda. 
3* 'Tat tvam ,asi' 'That thou art' of the Chandoqya upani,? 

of the Sama Veda- 
4. 'Ayam Atma Brahma' 'This self is Brahman' of the Athai 

Veda. 

These mahaVakyas indicate both the end and the rm* 
through which one can attain the end. Considering the I 
three expressions we may sa> that each indicates two prin 
pies and predicates a relatton between the two- The mahav&fo 
'Aham Brahm&s\mi' gives us two principles Brahman and Ah 
and these are related by the the expression 'asmi'. This relat 
is taken to be one of identity by Sri Sankara and other teach 
interpret it in different ways. The Ch^ndoqya upanisad s? 
Ssdeva Somyedam agfa asict EJsomev^dvitiyam. 'My d 
boy, sat which is one only existed in the beginning in adv 



101 



relation-' 3 This h based on the following text that occurs in the 
YijurVeda which is also repeated in tha Svetasva.ara'Ekohi 
Rudro na dvitiya tastuh.' Svetasvatara ///. 2,, Truly Rudra is 
one, there is no place for a second. The different schools of 
metaphysics gave different meanings to the word "Advaita* 
The word*? original form is 'Nadvitjyam* with the negative 
prefix Na added on to dvittyam as found used by the Yajur 
1/eda. Then it has dropped its 'Naf and come simply to be used 
as 'Advitfy&m* as in the Chandogya upanisad. Now it has 
come to stay as Advitiyatn and advaitam. 1 



,ln the mahdvakvas espesially in the text ' 
if both ekam and adviiiyam mean one, then there is redundancy- 
'Dvi' means two and 'dvita' means two-fold state- Dvaitam 
means- affirming firmly the-fold. state- Sri Sankara attributes 
the sense of absence to the prefix 'Na' and takes the word 
'advaita' to mean not-two (really meaning one) for the 
absence of two is unity* not in other numbers like two,three 
etc- Sri Ramanuja also interprets advaita to mean not-two. 
Though both teachers attribute the sense of absence, still 
they differ in interpreting the t&tparya (the intention behind 
the word)- Sri Sankara reinforces his interpretation by 
qualifying his meaning of aduuita with the ward ksvala and 
says that Parabrahm&n is one only. It cannot bear any impli- 
cation of duality either in itself or in the presence of any 
other entity of the same category or of the different categoty 
i .e,, there cannot be svahata O r saj&iya or vijat lya bheda. Of 
the three entities' an'atma r individual soul and Brahman, there 
cannot be any anatma apart -from Brahman, for that would 
entail WjaflyQ bheda. There cannot also be individual souls 
separately, for that would wnply sajatiya bheda. Brahman 
cannot also be conceived as a whole made up of parts, for 
that wouJd bring ' sv'ahdta bheda Brahman is mere being 
mere intelligence* (cinm&tr* ): nothing can be predicated of h> 

Thus it is clear that after taking the word advaita to 
mean not two (i, e,, meaning one) it does not fit in with 



i 02 



the scheme of Sankara unless the word Is further qualified 
by the adjunct kevala. 

Sri Ram^nuja construes the text to mean the unity of 
Godhead. H^nce the text does not preclude the admission 
of the reality of anatma and individual souls. These are 
elated to the supreme Being wha his infinite auspicious 
rattributes- The individual soul which is sthtil* cit, the 
senses and the object of senses which are sthtila atit 
and suksma cit f which is known by the Vedas and the 
suksma acit f rO m which the Divine bodies of God are 
formed, are the four attributes of Brahman. The three 
entities are different, although they stand in a peculiarly 
close relation to one another- what is meant by describing 
the doctrine as advaita, 'monism 1 is not that the complex 
of these three elements is a synthesized unity of differences^ 
but only that Brahman as embodied in or inspiring the 
souls and matter is one- The latter viz-, souls and matter 
are not identical with it or with one another- we may 
interpret the term "Visist&dvaita' as signifying that there is 
nothing outside this embodied whole- 5 

Sri Madhva takes the sense of contrariety of opposite 
(Virodha) and for him also, the text refers to the one 
which is the opposite of two- Parabr&hman is one, bu? 
since this one is the opposite of two, the word advaitam 
does not deny the existence of an entity that is the 
Opposite of Parabrahman. Hence the word 'advaitam 9 , itself 
conveys the rrieaning of dvaitam (two) to him. From this 
it is clear that these three preceptors assingn meaning to 
the word 'advttita', best suited to their theories and to fit 
in their respectivs schemes of thought, they modify the 
word 'advaiatm, v^ifh the help of adjuncts like kevala, 
Visista ect- So their thories are called kevatadvaitam, 'and 
dvaitam. Of these three, the theory of Ramaouja comes near 
to the theory of Saiva Siddhanta- Even then the correct 
meaning of advaita j$ not one or unity as taken by Ramanuja 



!03 



For if it means one, it is really a repetition of the word 
'ekam' thit precedes Moreover if unity is tha intention of 
the scripture' the word 'ekam' j s apt because of its clarity, 
the term 'advaita' which needs reflective thinking need not 
have been used. According to Saiva Siddhanta the idea of 
unity does not help in the interpretation of the great 
expressions, (mahavakyas).* 

We can explain the term advaita in another manner also. 
When we give th3 word advaita the abhzva meaning, it 
would mean 'There are not two'. Interpreted in its sadrsya 
meaning, the word advaita would mean 'They are not two'. 
And these two make all the difference. If the sadrsya 
meaning of advaita js accepted as the saiva Siddhantins 
do, then it would mean non-difference or non-duality, mean- 
ing 'They are not two'. There is also another ground which 
supports the Satva Siddhantin's point- The negative prefix 
'A' is capable of three important kinds of meanings of 
abhava, sadr$ya and virodha only when it is used in 
connection with the nouns. But when it is used in connec- 
tion with numerals, it would give only the sadrjya 
meaning. 7 The word 'ekam' with the prefix of 'A' becomes 
'anekam' and the word dvaitum with the prefix of 'A' 
would become advaitam. 

Umapati Sivam says that Saiva Siddhanta (especially 
this meaning of advaita) \s dark to the outer schools of 
faith and light to the inner schools- 3 When the views are 
systematically expressed and are based on the acceptance 
of certain values, these are called philosophical faiths. These 
also expound a way of life leading to realizing the values 
and these faiths are classified under inner and outer group- 
The outer group schools are those which are in the dark 
so far as understanding the spirit of fhe system of Saiva 
Siddhanta is concerned- It is not here suggested that some 
schools are in the dark and only Siddhanta is in the light. 9 
Strictly speaking no school of philosophy can be in the 



104 



dark. Saiva Siddhanta holds that there can be no school 
of Philosophy which could arise without the help of 
illumination. Consequently all knowledge is continuous when 
they are looked at from their source and the difference is 
between a better illumined mind f and a less illumined mind, 
and not strictly speaking as between darkness and light- 
But still it is "mearirg^ul to speak of faiths at certain 
levels in the dark, at least about the contents apprehended 
at other levels of nominations. The latter may have a broad 
view from which they can apprehend things in a clear 
and new light- 10 Light and darkness are relative notions. 
They imp!y a qualitative, not a mere quantiative difference- 
Knowledge is manifested to a person according to his 
progress in spirituality and thus we may have a heirarchical 
arrangement of knowledge. 11 

In this connection, we may consider one of the earlier 
verse of SivaPrakasam in which Umapati Sivam distinguishes 
three kinds of men- The first kind of men i-e-, uttama are 
those who are endowed with an original mind- The second 
kind of men (madhyama) can compare the merit of the 
given work with those of previous works and then decide 
the merit- Men of the third type (adhama) lacking intelligence, 
praise a work if others praise it and criticise it if others 
do so- we must note the difference between the firsrtwo 
types of men. Though both of them have the same amount 
of knowledge, the lirst category of mon have the capacity 
to see the merit with their original mind while the second 
type of men can see the merit only after comparison with 
similar works In the same way though both the Saiva 
Siddhantin and the followers of other faiths may knew 
the same amount of fact the former has knowledge which 
is explained by an analogy in riruvarutpayan* 1 ' 2 He says 
that though the sun illumines impartial !y ( it is darkness to 
nocturnal birds- Thus the man with higher knowledge may 
see the whole thing in a new light and the man with 



iOS 



lower knowledge mr-/ see things, but without the perspec- 
tive of originality- This is what is meant by saying that the 
truths of Saiva Siddhanta are dark to certain religions- These 
religions are considered outer for this reason. Conversely those 
religions whose perspectives are clear* as judged by Saiva 
Siddhanta, are termed inner for this very reason- Thus we find 
that Saiva Siddhanta has affinity with the inner groups. 

it is necessary to remember here that the terms 'outer' 
and 'inner' faiths do not signify doctrinal position but they 
signify the revelatory nature of religious faiths. We must 
know the nature of accomplished character of Saiva Siddhanta 
which is indicated by the term Siddhanta.. it follows from 
acceptance of the criterion of true and authentic revelation. 
The reliable testimoney par excellence is Siddhania 
(&aivagamas) The other doctrines in relation to this, are 
only prima facie views (purva paksa*) 1 * Saiva Siddhanta 
accepts the general revelation of the Vedas and the specific 
revelation of the Agamas and harmonizes the contents of 
the two on tho b^sis of the criterion of personal experience 
illumined by the descent of grace (saktinipata)* 1 * This factor 
is also responsible for making Siddhanta a faith that shapes 
itself through enquiry. 

Saiva Siddhanta adopts a pramanfl for pramanas. The 
system takes atma tit $akti fthe soul's intelligence - energy) 
as pramana whereas in the Nyaya l/ai$esika and other 
systems, perception, inference and testimony are mentioned 
as pramauas even though they are only vyafijakas (i.e., 
manifestos of knowledge.) The reason for this deviation is 
to be found in the fact that what is pramana should not 
become prameya. Otherwise the original pramana becomes 
Prameya. 1 * Atmacitsikn can never be prameya, whereas per- 
ception, anumana and authoritative sayings are all prameya, 
So what is pramana for Saiva Siddhanta is the pramana even 
of the Pramanas in the other systems. If perception etc. are 
referred to as pramanas i n Saiva Siddhanta works, it is only 



105 



by courtesy- (Upacaraprayoga) i.e., they are called 
only by the secondary application of the term- The direct, 
innate intuition of consciousness as illumined by the Infinite 
spirit is offered as a solution to the vexed problem of means of 
knowledge- It is held to be a necessary and sufficient condi- 
tion of all knowledge. Saiva Siddhanta is vindicated rather 
than contradicted by systems that are at variance with it. The 
role of Saiva Siddhanta is all-inclusive. In claiming to be all- 
inclusive, it finds a place for the schoofs which oppose it 

Umapati Sivam enunciates the distinctiveness of Saiva 
Siddhanta in terms of its character as inseparble non-dualism 
(pnvarum attuvidam). He shows the points of departure from 
the other systems of vedanta and also from other schools of 
Saivism. Here the question arises as to what is distinctive 
of the interpretation of the term advaita given by Saiva 
Siddhanta? 

Umapati Sivam uses two sets of analogies to briny 
out the significance of the concepts of identity, difference, 
and identity-in-difference- According to him the second set 
of analogy explains correctly these concepts. Hence he 
would prefer the second set to the first. 

According to the first set of analogies, we have gold 
and the ornaments made of gold as illustrative of identity 
light and darkness as illustrative of difference, word and 
meaning as illustrative of identity in difference. 1G If God 
and man are identical in essence as gold and ornaments 
made of gold are, then it amounts to saying that there is 
really one entity. The difficulty would be that if there is 
only one entity, God's creative function would then be 
devoid of meaning. Then we would have to say that God's 
creation is purposeless- Again if there is any purpose of 
God, then it would imply God's purpose for Himself and 
will again mean that God is in need of something to be 
done which He does through creation. 17 Thus if there is 



107 



only one entity, creation would be meaningless. In so far 
as the Saiva Siddhantin accepts creation as meaningful, the 
analogy of gold and ornaments made of gold, understood 
in the Advaitin's sense will take away the significane of 
creation. According to Umapati Sivam, the *saja form of 
the Lord and the sakafa forms of iccka. jnzna and briya of 
the Lord are both the forms of Lord Siva. They are identical 
in essence as gold and ornaments made of gold are. Hence 
the analogy of gold and ornaments made of gold will be 
useful to the Siddhantin to illustrate the identity of essence 
between saka\a and niskaia forms, but not to illustrate the 
'dentity of Brahman with jlva. 1 * If on the other hand when 
we say that God and man are as different as light is 
different from darkness, then also it makes no sense to 
say that God is the creator. There must be some relation 
between God and man such that God is the creator and 
man the creature. Difference as between light and darkness 
amounts to opposition which means absence of relation. 
The position that God is wholly other to man also is not 
helpful- Thus these two instances deny relation and render 
the concept of God devoid of significance from the point 
of view of Theism 

Then may we say that God and man are both identical 
and different as for example like word and its meaning? word 
and its meaning speech and what is spoken are not one in 
the sense of identity and not two in the sense of mutual 
opposition. 19 One implies the other and is determined by its 
relation to the other. So it is both identity and difference at 
the satoe time. This is also not tenable because of the obvious 
self-contradictory nature of the relation. Bhedabheda does not 
bear precisely the same significance in all schools that make 
use of that expression. It may generally be taken to indicate a 
belief that bheda or difference and <*>bheda O r unity can co- 
exist or be in intimate relation with each other like substance 
and attribute, universal and particulars* whole and part and 
even opposites. 20 Aside from the unintelligibly of the notion 



108 

of 'and', the example does not advance from the previous one. 
On the contrary it retains the objectionable features of them- 
If God arid man cannot be wholly identical or wholly differ- 
ent, it is ndt correct to say that He can be both at once. 

The inseparable non-dualism of 'Saiva Siddhanta rejects 
this abstract Goe-man relationship. Meykandar says: 'For the 
enlightened, He is not other than the world, He is not one 
with the world,, He is not both other than /and one with the 
world. But because the relation is non-duality .which includes 
all these three, all things 'are His form. Nevertheless, thou 
who knowest the truth of non-duality worship as Idve." 21 
Non-duality thus understood -includes the features of unity, 
difference, and unfty-in-difference- It conceives the relation 
organically and implies a kind of dialectic of God-man 
relationship. 22 ,. 

According to the second set of analogies we have the 

relationship of body and soul and of eye (i.e., sight) and 

sunlight and of the active sense (i-e-, eye) and the active 
soul- 23 ' 

Reality has many facets and the first three examples 
do not explain these facets harmoniously- SoJJmapati Sivam 
gives another set of three analogies to remove tHe limitations 
in the first set and to explain the many facets of Reality 
completely and harmoniously. The relation between body 
and soul is so intimate that the soul is jdentified with the 
body unreservedly in such a way that bqdy and soul may 
be spoken of as one. It is a case of union between the 
two and not identity or unity as between gold and orna- 
ments made of gold. The relation of .body - soul is not 
identity because even though soul identifies .'with the body, 
the soul j's still soul and body the, body. The example of 
eye and sunlight brings out the sqns^ of difference as 
suggestive of transcendence. Transcendence is not opposi- 
tion as between light and darkness. This is suggested by 



109 



the example itself- Though external light and eye are different, 
they are not opposed to each other. The external light is 
revelatory in narure while the tyelight is not revelatory. 
The eye can see only when it is made to see by the 
help of the external light- Thus even though there is difference 
between the two, the ,two are not opposed to each other. 
One is the condition of the possibility of functioning for 
the other, Here we ^substitute transcendence in the second 
set for mere difference which is implied in the first set. 

The third example of the knowing power of the soul and 
the Seeing power of the eye suggests the intimate relation 
between God and man. Word and the object denoted by the 
word are different- The- word 'tree" is not the same as the object 
tree* If we take the word and its meaning, the two are related 
intimately. Thus the analogy of the word and its meaning is used 
to illustrate the standpoint of bhsddbheda^ in the first set, 
though the identity element is present, it is not so intimate as 
in the case of the second set of analogy i.e., the knowing 
power of the soul and the seeing power of the eye- When we 
see a thing, the intelligence of the sou! is so intimately con- 
nected with the sense organ i.e., eye that we cannot distin- 
guish 'the function of intelligence of the soul from that of eye 
separatly. When something is perceived by me, the question 
arises do I perceive or is it my eye what perceives? Here we 
have a relation in which both of them an intimately connected. 
The identity element is more and the difference element is less 
in this analogy* whereas in the analogy of word and the object 
denoted, by it; the tiiffereece element is more and the identity 
element is less. 

* i t < < 

Now we may consider the upanisadic analogy in which 
.two birds are described, one unaffected and the other enticed 
,fey the fruits, of ignorance. These two birds may be compared 
to the Lord and the soul. The upanisad says/ 5 



110 



"Dva suprana s5yu]y5 sakh5ya, samanam Vrkam paris- 

asvajate 

tayor anyah pippalam svad attyana/nann anyo' bhhaka stti" 

R. Hume gives the following translation. 26 

'Two birds fast-bound companions 

clasp close the self same tree- 

of these two, the one eats the sweet fruit : 

The other looks on without eating-" 

This idea is first to be found in the R0 Veda 27 which says 
"Two birds with fair wings knit with bonds of friendship in 
the same sheltering tree have found a refuge. One of the 
twin eats the sweet Fig-tree's fruitage; the other eating not regar- 
deth only-" Commenting on this Sayana says that the two 
birds are the vita! and the Supreme spirit dwelling in one body. 
The vital spirit enjoys the fruit or rewards of actions while the 
Supreme Spirit is merely a passive spectator- The sarne idea is 
repeated in The Muudaka upanisad (3-1.1) 

"Two birds, fast bound companions, 

clasp close the self-same tree* 

Of these two, the one eats sweet fruit 

The other looks on without eating" and 

we can recall the Katha upanisad Mantra also. 

''There are two that drink of righteousness (r}<*) in the 
world of good deeds; Both are entered into the secret 
place (of the heart), and in the highest upper sphere. 
Brahma - knowers speak of them as 'light' and 'shade'. 
And so do the house - holders who maintain the five 
sacrificial fires, and those two who perform the triple 
Naciketas fire' Ka\ha uanistd 3.1 m 



In the Svetajvatara passage first quoted the two birds 
are the individual soul t/Tva) and the supreme soul 
(Paramtfman). They are sard to be Inseparable friends, 
because of the relationship of love existing between i God 



Ill 



and the soul, and the dependence of the latter on the 
former is eternal. Both the soul and God are said to reside 
in the same body, because in respect of the soul, the body 
has to be conceived as its locus and in repect of Gcd also, 
the body is the focus even though He is transcendent- 
Because God is immanent in all beings, He is realized by 
an embodied being through the means of the body- The 
fruits of the tree are the results of one's karma, or past 
actions, which are performed with the help of the body. 
Out of attachment the individual soul clings to these fruits 
of actions and suffers consequences good as well as bad, 
in successive embodiments. But the Lord, its companion 
bird remans non-attached + o actions and their fruits, being 
the mere witness of the cosmic play. 

It is instructive to find that the Advaitin also inter- 
prets this passage in his favour. He says that the individual 
soul is only an image of the paramatman endowed with 
th cosmic rnind and hence both these are inseparable 
even as the sun's image is inseparable from the sun. The 
Siddhantin feels that this Advaitic interpretation is not helpful 
when we consider the wpanisad as a whole and particularly 
the passages that proceeds and succeeds- 28 

In the preceding passage it is stated, 

"There is a single Female of red, white and black 
colours, who is unoriginated, and who produces numerous 
offsprings resembling herself. By her side lies one unborn 
Male out of attachment for her, while another Male, also 
unoriginated, forsakes her after having enjoyed her. (Svetasatara 
lV-5). In this passage the former male refers to the indi 
vidua! soul and the latter denotes God. The upani$dd also 
says: 

''Sitting on the same tree the individual scul gets 
entangled and feels miserable, being deluded on account 
of his forgetting his divine nature, when he sees the other, 



112 



the cord of all* whom all devotees worship, and realizes 
that all greatness is His, then he is relieved of his misery- 
(kvetajvara IV-7). This passage clearly indicates the difference 
between the Lord and the soul. The idea that all greatness 
really belongs to Him reminds us of the Tirukkurai which says 
that only God has real greatness or fame- ((porui cir pugai)** 

Tirumwlar also explains the Siddhanta point by using a 
similar analogy. 80 He says that there are two swans on the 
river bank* 1 and the two are inseparable- ff one's real nature 
is to be isolated, then the other has no salvation-* The 
former swan refers to the Lord and the latter which is 
called as mada vannam (ignorant swan) refers to the indivi- 
dual soul. The phrase 



LDL_j65T6ffnjb Gu/DfBp/<snr$566rCp/' must be clearly 
understood- This phrase means that so long as individual 
thinks that he can exist independently of the Lord* it can- 
not attain liberation. This fact must be understood precisely. 
Tirumular is very definite about the eternal nature of the 
three entities ie. Pati f pa$u and pasa. He says* 2 



un&iL fTosruu&tr 

Lj&rutr&tl) 



H3 



The soul which discriminates between Sat and asat jg 
eternal. The Lord who helps the soul to know, is eternal 
and the bond (past*) which binds the sou! so that it may 
not know God, is also eternal- When the intelligence of 
the Lord descends on the soul, the soul will be liberated- 
He says that of the three entities pati, pasu and #a/a, like 
pati and wX Pc$a is also eternal- 



We can also explain the Siddhanta view from another 
point of view. Sivajnana Munivar considers the anology of 
the vowel 'A' which is found in all letters, as a refutation of 
kevaladvaha. He explains that the non-difference in union 
conceived of by the Siddhanta is to be understood in the sense 
of pervasion- Meykandar says: ''When the R Veda says 'one', 
it means that Reality is one that the Lord is one. Thou who 
sayest 'one' understand that thou art soul bound by the 
fetter. The Veda means that just as there can be no letter if 
the vowel VV is not, so there is nothing '(if Brahman is not)'- 
Tiruvalluvar says- 

'As A is the first of all letters 

So the ancient Bhagavan is first in the world. 34 

If the point of comparison is merely to denote God's 
order in place as the first so many other analogies might 
be thought of. Parimelalagar says that the order is not 
order in place, but order in its origin. 35 A is the most 
primary sound that the human voice can utter and it is 
the one sound which is present in every other sound, 
vowel or consonant- 36 A vowel is defined ss a syllable 
that can be pronounced of itself, without the aid of any 
other syllable. A consonant is an alphabetical element that 
has to be combined with a vowel to form a syllable. We 
utter these sounds and yet fail to recognize the mystery in 
their connection on account of their familiarity. When we 
try to utter 'A' it comes by the mere opening of the mouih 
without any modification whatever, and requires no other 



114 



aid When we try to pronounce vowel - consonant say 'Ka' 
(), we can note that there is a vowel sound present in 
it. Ws cannot pronounce the consonant after eliminating the 
vowel. There is always a vowel sound present in the 
consonants, though we never consciously recognize its 
presence. We dot all our consonants as <* ^ etc., 
and the dot or circle in Hindu symbolism represents the 
letter A'- This shows that just like the consonants require 
vowels even for their pronunciation, so also the souls and 
matter require God for their meaningful sustenance. J. M. 
Nallasami Piilai in his 'Studies in Saiva Siddkanta' feels that 
there is no such unique conjunction anywhere else in 
Nature, where one subsists not except in conjunction with 
the other. 37 Except the inseparable conjunction as noted 
above, we see that the consonant (pure) is no more derived 
from the vowel than the vowel from the consonant- The 
place of origin is distinct. 'A' is pronounced by the mere 
opening of the mouth. The tongue has to ,be brought into 
contact with the palate to pronounce 'Ka' (*) and this 
same act cannot produce the vowel So the vowel cannot 
be said to cause the consonant, nor the consonant the 
vowel- Nor can we call the consonant and the connection 
themselves as false, and as a mere illusion or delusion. So 
J M. Nallasami Piilai concludes that neither the principle of 
parinama nor vivarta can apply to this connection- All that 
we can say of it is that the vowels and consonants are 
s^ connected and inseparable and that no language is 
possible with vowels alone, or with consonants alone and 
every consonant is at the same time a vowel consonant in 
which the vowel is implicit- In the same way, God exists 
in the world whether we recognize His presence or not 
Though we can conceive of the vowels standing alone, to 
think of consonants as existing by themselves is an utter 
impossibility. Thus though ontologically God and souls are 
existents, the nature of their existence differs axiologically-* 8 



115 

we may distinguish th* terms tadatmya and ad wit*." 
when om Reality appears as guni and guna. substance and 
attribute, it is called t&d&mya. Saiva Siddhanta means by 
advaita the close connection of two things which might 
be regarded as one. Thus though both tadatmya and advaita 
denote close connection betweent entities, advaita denotes 
the inseparable connection between two entities while tadatmya 
denotes the one Reality appearing as two- 

Srikantha accepts the t&d'dtmya view. 411 Umapsti sivam in 

his Tiruvarutapayan says, "As in the compound t&daldi, by 

combination of letters L+L^D, and these do not remain 

but coalesce: so know thou, that in the supreme felicity 

thou shalt be one with the Lord'-* 1 Here the words faf 

and talai form into t&dalai. The letter d in the compound 

is neither one nor two This is the kind of relation, between 

God and soul- The letters Y (err) and 'ta' O) do not lose 

their entitativeness, but their union is represented by one 

fletter. we can explain the word tadalai mystically. The words 

a/ and talai mean the placing of God's, feet on our head 

to give Sivajnana- The resulting union is anyanasti. it is 

claimed that Meykandar, who came after the three celebrated 

commentators of the Brahmastitras understood the correct 

meaning of the term advaita. Tayumanavar uses the words 

freely when he praises Meykandar. "Oh! for the day when 

1 can reach the feet of my Lord, who found the truth of 

pure advaita and which could not be comprehended by 

persons dwelling in untruths/' 4 ' 2 

The advaita of Saiva Siddhanta is called &uddh&dvaita 
because it does not require any other qualifying words like 
kevala or vijfesa/ 8 Saiva Siddhanta speaks of the advaita 
relation of the soul and God as anadi. i.e., beginningless." 
It emphasises udan dthal (s_L_~esr **&&&>) or togetherness-** 
God is one with the soul, different from it and is together 
with it- This is a unique concept of the immanence and 
transcendence of God. In the bound state this union 



116 



(adritiyam) is bheda advitiyam, because the soul does not 
know God- In the n.ukti state, it is abheda advifiyam or 
uddha advitiycm. If this difference in relation is not there, 
then there would be no significance in talking about release 
at all. Saiva Siddhanta speaks of the dual nature of the 
scul as sadasat r or being sat when it identifies with sat 
and asat when it identifies with asat. 46 Tayum^navar expresses 
this; 

"Oh! for the day when I will be in advaita relation 
with God, as I am now in advaha relation with 



We must note the emphasis given to existential nnan m 
Saiva Siddhanta. Even though existentialism arose as a school 
in philosophy only after the second world war, the important 
ideas of the school are to be found in the earlier systems- 
The interpretation of advaita given by the various systems 
of Vedanta is not an answer to the question about the 
nature of God whether He is one or two, different or 
non-different from the world without reference to what exists. 
The concept of advaita gets its meaning from its relevance 
to existing man. By existence we mean the actual conditions 
of estrangement from God and consequent ^suffering under 
which man exists- He is alienated from Divine Ground and 
consequently from himself also- This factor is responsible 
for bondage. Conversely we may say that when the individual 
knows himself clearly and distinctly, he can also see 
God who is the support of the individual- Meykandar says 
that to see God is the test for knowing whether the 
individual has known himself correctly or not. If one has 
seen God in the process of knowing oneself, then it follows 
that he has known himself correctly. On the other hand if 
he has not seen God in the process of knowing himself* 
then it implies that he has not known even himself correctly' 
Pattinattar says, "Those who cannot see you, are those who 
cannot see even themselves." 



117 

BJ <a>rr 6&5T/r^5 



Marudur Mummanikkovai. 13. This fact is 
implied in the Sivajfand Bodham verse expressing homage 
and reverence to the audience.* 8 

When the individual overcomes the bondage, he is said 
to be liberated. Illustrations of man's relations with God 
must bring out this existential factor- The examples of gold 
and ornaments made of gold, light and darkness, word and 
its meaning which are given by the classical systems of 
Vedanta are not adequate from this point of vie A/. These 
examples are merely metaphysical, speculating about the 
abstract relations of one - many, cause - effect, aubstance - 
attribute etc-, without taking into consideration of the human 
participation Umapati Sivam criticises thesa analogies and 
this criticism implies that the conditions of relation which 
are borne out by these analogies themselves, point to the 
factor of human bsing. Th^ terms and their relation get 
their meaning only wh3n wa consider man's exoerience. 
Umapati says that the analogy of gold and ornaments made 
of gold, refers to one who knows them as identical. Gold 
an unitelligent substance cannot know itself as itentical 
with its ornament or the ornaments gold. Similarly for one 
who is blessed with the vision, the opposition of light and 
darkness is meaningful. Word and meaning do not experience 
by themselves their dependance. The intelligent man knows 
that word and meaning are mutually dependent. An analogy 
which deals with the relation of God and man becomes 
significant if we consider their essential nature and these 
analogies of gold and the ornaments made of gold, light 
and darkness, word and meaning are inadequate because 
they lack the existential emphasis. 

When man understands his relations with God, this 



18 



which God does to souls is of two kinds. They are causing 
obscuration in the beginning and bestowal of grace when mala 
is matured. Creation, maintenace, destruction and obscurat - 
ion belong to the category of grace of the stern type. 
(marakkarunai) because the four divine acts entail suffering 
in the beginning and bestowal of grsce is grace of the right 
type (arakkarunai) because it always brings happiness. 49 

Manikkav^cagar says that God is beyond the reach of those 
who are not aware of His grace- 50 Thirunflvukkarasar Isays 
that God is the great help to those who distinguish the 
supreme God from the class of elevated higher celestial 
beings. 51 It is also said that the preparatory stages cflryi, 
hrtya, and yoga help man to distinguish the supreme God 
from the celestial beings- 52 When these stages culminate in 
jftana, God comes as a guru and bestows liberation- Thus 
man's understanding of the true nature of God comes as a 
liberating experience. 

The analogies of the old set suggest that God and the 
world (underwhich man also is included) do not undergo 
any change. God and gold ornaments are identical at all 
times. The other analogies i e., light and darkness, word 
and meaning have the same defect. These analogies do not 
signify a change in man's self-understanding from a state of 
ignorance of the Divine grace and the consequent alienation 
from God, of a state of knowledge about God where the 
sou! could distinguish the supreme Being from the celestial 
beings and the consequent union overcoming alienation. 

Now we may see the aptness of the new set of 
analogies. Body-sou! analogy gives us the impression that 
the felt sense of one-ness is the experience of neither the 
body by itself nror the sou! by itself. This analogy is 
intelligible from a third 'something' which is body-soul i.e., 
man. similarly the analogy of eyesight is also clear only 
from the perspective of man in his seeing* In the same 



119 



way the mutual presence of the perceiving eye and perceiving 
soul is sensible for the reflective man who is different as 
such from both- Thus these analogies help us to interpret 
man's relation with God in the medium of man's experience- 

The second set of analogies emphasise the existentia I 
aspect and do not exclude any aspect of man's experience. 
The 'existing man' who is subject to the many facets of 
experience involving memory and forgtfulness, knowledge 
and ignorance is given full recognition here. Body-soul 
anology is more appropriate than gold and ornaments made 
of gold because the unity of body and soul is felt vividly 
in our waking experience. Similarly the relation of evelight 
and external light becomes important- When there is some 
defect in the eye, for example the formation of cateract 
in the eye, we cannot see even though there may be external 
light. When the obstruction is removed, one can see with 
the help of external light- Thus we realize the necessity of 
the eyesight Meykandar says (kawpllar kan Pera kanalc kaial) ^ 
The usefulness of the eyesight is even more clear to us 
when we come to see after an interval where we could 
not see due to the defect in the eye. 53 In the third example 
also the experience of the inseparable nature of the perceiving 
eye and the perceiving soul becomes evident from the 
possibility of an experience in which their combination is 
not manifest. 

Here we may take the phenomenon of inattention as an 
example- When something is presented to my eyes, under 
normal circumstances I see. When I am preoccupied with 
something, then my eyes may see and yet I may not see. 
From this experience one comes to know that when one 
sees, his soul and eyes function inseparably- Thus the 
second set of analogies used by Umapati avoid the narrowness 
of the first set of analogies* By formulating the second set 
of analogies regarding the relation of God and man, 



120 

Umapati shows how Saiva Siddhanta is a philosphy of 
inseparable non - dualism, (pirivarum anwdam Sp 7). 

Sivajnana Munivar says that the term advaita used in Saiva 
Siddhanta does not denote aikya only which occurs in abheda 
sambandha, not tadatmya only occurlng in bhedabheda samban* 
dha and not saiyoga only which is a relation involving bheda 
sambandha. Advaita of Saiva Siddhanta is comprehensive in 
the sense that it includes a>bheda t bheda and bhedabheda 
harmoniously- 54 Saka Siddhanta does not deny abheda relation 
that obtains between soul and body in explaining the relation 
between God and man- it also does not deny the element 
of bheda that obtains between eyesight and sunlight in 
explaining that the two are different as entities and finally it 
does not deny the element of bhedabheda relation that obtains 
between the perceiving eye and the perceiving soul in explai- 
ning that the two are present inseparably, (kalapp&l onru, 
porui tanmaiy&l veru, ceyal:anway%,t undanadal). Advaita of 
Saiva Siddhanta combines the three elements harmoniously- 

The commentatator raises the question why instances 
involving aikya sambandha like the river merging in the sea, 5 ' 
like the merging of ether in space and the fragrance in earih' 
and instance involving bhedabheda sambandha like tune and 
sound and like fruit and its essential sweetness 57 and like 
taste and water 55 and finally instances involving bheda sam- 
bandha like magnet attracting iron are used- 59 These may be 
shown in the following manner- 
Bheda Bhedabheda Abheda 

1. magnet attract- 1. tune and sound 1- river merging in 
ing iron. the sea- 

2. fruit and its 

essential sweetness- 2. ether mergirg 

in space. 

3* taste and water- 3- ^fragrance 

in earth* 



12! 



^Traditionally fragrance is considered to be the character- 
stic of earth, sound that of ether, colour that of fire, taste 
that of water and tactual sensation that of air. 

He concludes that these analogies are useful to a certain 
extent only- The analogy expressing the inseparable relation 
between God and sou! is that of the perceiving soul and the 
perceiving eye. This analogy avoids the shortcomings of all 
the above mentioned analogies and contains the good aspects 
in them. The significane of this analogy is confirmed by 
Sivsjnana Munivar who quotes the views of the three impor- 
tant teachers of Saiva Siddhanta i.e-, Meyka/yrfar, Arulnandi 
Sivarn and Umapsti Sivarn G0 

Kanum kaflukuk kattumfampo! 
Kana u/attaik kandu kattalin 

-sivajnana Bodham llth sutra. 



ka^rfidum tanmai yudaiya ka^ukkuk 
K^yumuyir kattik kandiduma pola vlsan 
Kattlk ka^iduvan 

-Sivajfiaiia Siddhiyar 11-1. 

arivolipol pirivarum attuvidamagum 



PISA (BONDS*) 



is a genera! name for the three bonds. The soul is 
enshrouded by the three bonds, (malas.) They are znava 
m&ya, and karma* Anava Is called PratibandJia because \t 
obstructs the omniscience of the soul- May% which limits 
the pervasiveness of the soul is described as sambandha and 
karma which ceaselessly follows the soul directing it 
towards enjoyment rather then towards attainment of release is 
anubandha. fhey bind the soul in several ways. However while 
anava is wholly inimical to the soul, may^, and karma are not 
so. Moreover if m&ya and karma are used properly they help 
in the soul's emancipation from bondage. 1 It is instructive 
to note that the author of Thanigaipur^nam calls anava as 
m u{ uppagai ( CJp(tg & 



Madurai SiVapraprakasar in the introduction to the 
nineteenth verse beginning with enn^id^y (err&msm^^uj) 
shows how Siva-prakdsam follows the Sivjjnana Bodham and 
the Sivajn&na Siddiyar by giving parallel ideas from both and 
concludes that th3 verses of Sivaprak%$am from nineteenth to 
fifty (i-e-. thirty two verses) deal with the second chapter of the 
Sivag&ana Bodham and its commentary, the Biddhiyar. However 
he points out a difference in the treatment of Buddha M%y&. In 
Sivajfi&na Siddhiy&r, the $uddha may a is treated in the first 
chapter. (1.68.) Since the first chapter deals with God and 



123 



because &ddha mays forms part of the body of God, the iuddha 
maya is treated in the first chapter in the Siddhiyar. Umapati 
Sivam deals with \\\&uddha in>ay& in the second chapter 
when he describes the bonds i.e., a/i^va, waja and karma. 



The maturation of mala occurs only when the soul is 
associated with w ajya and Karma. Since the suddha m&ya 
is also a species of maya, it is dealt with in the second 
chapter. The commentator also gives another reason that 
even though the suddha /wava is purer than asuddha m&y%. t 
the soul can get release only by transcending even the 
juddha may& Then Maduni Sivaprakasar himself poses the 
question why when Arulnandi Sivam considers the suddha 
m&va as the body of God and treats it in the first chapter, 
while Umapati treats the same in the second chapter- He 
answers the question by quoting from Nann&I verse*, which 
explains that ths author of carbu nul can add some significant 
differences, after accepting the main thesis of the original 
work {mudol nul) and the dependent work (vafi nul) based 
on the original work* 2 

While the bonds w5z/a and karma come and go, &nava 
is. the basic bond underlying their conning and going. In 
the case of the former two bonds, their nature as impurities 
j-e % agencies of bondage, is conditional. It is conditioned 
by the presence of mala* Mays, and fodrma function in the 
service of ripening of %.nava mala t which is the original 
bond- Anava mala j$ also called Pa$a in general. 3 

According to Saiva Siddhrmta what is not o-ne and 
what is not intelligent cannot be other than the effect of a 
cause. It cannot be uncaused, eternal- Mala which is non- 
intelligent and primal, has to be one. Tho spiritual dirt, 
which conditions man and other forms of life without 
beginning to a state of limitation, finitude or bondage is 
not many but one (though) its energies are many-) 4 

Umapati says that though mala is one, its oneness is 
to be understood as the unity of muJtipl powers 5 



124 



Here the author anticipated the difficulty that if many people 
attained release what happens to the reality of mala. How 
is it that though anava abides in all souls, its presence is 
not known to one? Umapati Sivam in Tiruvarutpayan Says 
'My Lady Darkness has an infinity , of lovers but hides 
herself from even her spouse with strictest chastity'* 6 
Umapati says that basic bond &n<x>va is one though it 
obscures many. 7 

Thus though it is one entity, its functions of binding 
the intelligent souls are infinite in number and they are 
co-eval with the infinity of souls. Thus the dissolution of 
mala which is another name for release, means not the 
destruction as such of mala but only of its screening powers- 
The question arises: if destruction or dissolution be admitted 
for wa/a sakif, how can mala escape destruction? Can we 
conceive of something which exists but whose functions 
are destroyed? To meet this difficulty Umapati says that 
the countleas functions pertain to one bond. These functions 
are of such a nature as to bs removed or subdued at the 
respective timslimits, typified b/ release-* Thus the connate 
bond of the individual saul is one but by virtue of its 
infinite functions, it thwarts ths intelligent functions of the 
infinite nu,iV;>jr of souls. And thsss fmstians th9nr3elves 
though baginin^less are ter.ninable in the long run at different 
times. Madurai Sivaprakasar states that that these functions 
of mrta can be subdued only by knowing the world as 
asat.* whsn the soul abandons the world of sense as a 
quickly passing mirage, the Lord becomes cool shade (for it)- 

Tfoe above characterization of the connate bond is the 
part of the ^gama doctrine. Umapati adds something of his 
own to this f when he explains the distinction between 
physical darkness and metaphysical darkness- A/iava js not 
merely a principle of darkness but is a positive and powerful 
entity. It is a species of delusion which makes even physical 
darkness by comparison look like an enlightening agent. 1 9 



125 

Umapati in his Tiruvaruipayan explains this distinction clearly. 
Even as physical darkness covers all objects* anava covers all 
souls* But there is a distinction between the two-physical 
darkness shows itself even though it obscures objects whereas 
a$ava f not only hides all objects, but also hides itself. ll 

Anava is responsible for the states of kevula and sakala 
(states of complete darkness and partial illumination respect- 
ively in which souls find themselves periodically-) Anava 
is responsible for soul's ignorance of itself, of its deeds 
and of the Lord, So long as copper exists, verdigriss also 
exists therein. In the same way the obscuration of the soul 
by mla will continue as long as there is the assertive 
intelligence of the soul> Le., atmabodha in the fettered 
state. 12 It is the basic bond and is eternal. 13 Even in 
release, wiola is not destbyed, only its energies are destroyed- 14 
In the kevala sta.e, the soul's cognitive, conative and 
affective functions are entirely thwarted by 



The agency of mala has nevertheless to be understood 
figuratively. Mala is non-intelligent and material and there- 
fore cannot have independent agency, The individual soul is 
'ntelligent and non-material. The problem here is that obstr- 
uction of spirit's functions can only come from what is not 
spirit and yet what is not spirit can have no independent 
agency; The solution is to admit a function of God Himself 
whose nature is that of pure spirit as underlying the veiling 
function of mala. This divine function, described as the 
concealing power [Tirodhana gakti) makes it possible for the 
non-intelligent and material agencies of bondage to function. 

Therefore this divine function comes to be spoken of as 
itself a mala. Umapati rightly says that though this function 
of God underlying bondage is spoken of as itself a species 
of bond, this is not literally true. It is only a phase of Grace, 
which is the very essence of the nature of God. 16 Because 
what is intended to be accompanied by the function of con- 



126 



cealing power is to make the individual soul under bondage 
fit to rise above the condition and become united to the 
feet of the Lord. Here Umapati uses two expressions parindu 
(LJ/PJB^J) and karunaimiga (&^s^&s^iB^) which can be 
rendered as compassionately and out of overflowing Grace- 

Umapati explains the mode of operation of the concealing 
power of God which is calif d an impurity. Really speaking, 
the concealing power is the pervasive antidote that progress- 
ively neutralises soul's condition of bondage. Experts well 
versed in rare Agamic sciences say that by the loving will 
of the Supreme S;va beyond thought, the tattva of Nada is 
evolved from pure may a, and from Nada the Bindu tattva 
emanates. (It is not the same as 'Bindu' which is the 
synonym of ytddka m%ya.} From it the brightening tattva of 
Sada&va takes its rise and gives birth to Isvara which again 
causes Buddha vidya. Thus stand serially in function the five 
arch typal tattvaa through which ensues the actualization of 
bondage for the souls- Umapati actually says that ail these 
five tattvas are respectively ruled by five agents of divine 
power who stay in and take their names from them- The 
author of cintarai urai says that Umapati's intention is to 
refer to actual tattvas eventhough he mentions the agents 
of the tattvas. This is analogous to mentioning light while 
actually intending to refer to lamp. Madufai Sivaprakasa r 
explains that Nada tattva is the jnana &akti of the Lord 
which arouses the intelligence of the soul and Bindu tattva 
arouses the kriya, $akti of the soul. Sadakya is that tattva 
where jnftna and kriya of the Lord are equal in functioning. 
hvara is the tattva where kriya predominates over jnana 
and in suddha vidya the reverse takes place ie-, jtiAna 
predominates over kriya. 11 Bindu which is stated to be 
evolved from N&da unfailingly gives rise to the word which 
develops into four forms beginning with the subtlest- 1 * 
There is thus simultaneous manifestation of the realm of 
speech as a significant corollary and counterpart of the 



127 



evolution of taftvas. The manifestation of the realm of 
speech is closely connected with the general function of 
stimulating the bonds into action- 

The five iva tattvas and the four vaks are the media 
through which the Lord acts. These media are material though 
of a pure kind* The concealing power of God by means of 
these pure media, operates mayeya t the derivatives of m&ya 
and thereby bringing into actuality for the individual soul its 
conaition of bondage- There are three conditions which tuna 
the individual soul to its empirical life viz., the condition 
of enjoyership (bhoktritvam) and the implied sense of agency 
which accompanies it, the enjoyment or experience itself 
(bliogam} and a state of being tied to experience (bandham). 
These are made possible due to mala, karma, and maya. l% 
The conditioning of the individual is made possible through 
the function of m&yz* M&yeya, the effect of mays, in turn 
is enabled to function by the active and Variable presence 
of Divine Sakti which can be seen in the serial emergence 
of five &va tattvas. Thus the individual js bound by these 
various factors and this bondage is manifested in the series 
of avasth&s to which the soul is subject Man experiences 
his state of bondage in terms of avasthas (five states viz.* 
jag 'rat t svapna, su&upti, tnrjya and turlyailtd). Madurai 
Sivaprakasar in his commentary states that apart from the 
four modes of speech, the fifty one letters, the eighty one 
words, the seven crores of mantras, the vedas, the Agamas, 
the pjra^as and the bodies, organs, worlds and objects 
of enJDyment required for the V ifoznakalas and piai&yakalas 
also evolve from $uddha 



The Siddhantin recognizes .only two types of evolution- 
cne where a substantial change of cause occurs (pariuama) 
and the other where there is no such substantial change. 
(vrMi). The evolution of the fcur modes of speech is of 
the latter type. The example given to illustrate vrtti (subtle 
transformation) is the cloth spreading itself into a tent- As 



128 

jStfnaprakasar, the commentator of the Sivajri&na Siddhiy^r 
says that there is no inherent difference between the two- 
General transformation (parin^ma) is of two kinds partial 
and full. Partial transformation takes place as when worms 
are produced from ghee- When milk is turned into curd, 
we have an instance of full transformation- After considering 
the vrtti of Suddha maya, Umapati proceeds to deal with 
the asuddha 
Ajuddha maya ". 



Asuddha maya is the first cause of the universe. 
serves as the resting locus of those souls whose karma has 
fructified and is duly consumed- May*, serves as the sus- 
taining refuge for the people sustaining them against slipping 
into the darkness of &ava. it is also one of the bonds- 21 
Its function is more like that of a type of clay which the 
washerman soaks the dirty cloth with, in order to remove 
the dirt of the clothes- The function of maya is part of 
the function of the concealing power of God and this fact 
can be seen from this analogy itself. 

A crucial distinction that is made here, is between 
m&ya, in its causal form and w&ya as standing for its 
evolved manifestations i.e., between m&ya and mayeya- 
Umapati does not use the term m%yey<* and means by 
mamayai (sp. 32&70)* the mayeya which is not Bindu or 
mahamaya as considered by certain scholars. It is only 
mayfl considered in its effect form that is described as a 
kind of light in relation to the darkness of mala. |n its 
causal form however, it is a bond, which co-ordinates the 
two other bonds of m<*>l" and karma. |f it is asked what 
this maya is, the answer is that it is the primal cause of 
the universe. To meet the statement that God and not m&ya 
is such cause, it is to be stated that the unintelligent world 
cannot spring from Supreme intelligence. The question may 
take another turn as what the need is for a God, if may* 
itself evolves into the world. The answer is that being urr 



129 



intelligent, mava cannot itself develop into forms and sub- 
stances- Then one may say that it detracts from God's omni- 
potence not to bs able to create without waya. The right 
view is that though may a is as eternal as God, it is God who 
is the master who wields it to create any form He pleases 
and so may& cannot be said to invest God with its lordship- 

Regarding the characteristics of a$uddha m&y%> Umopati 
says that it is a formless, motionless, unintelligent and 
eternal entity. 23 Tattvas of diverse qualities and functions 
are evolved from the a$uddha may&. Body, organs, world 
and objects of enjoyment spring from the combination of 
tativas. it is pervasive as it endows souls everywhere with 
bodies, organs and worlds and it permeates all its developments 
and causes delusion to souls, During final dissolution of 
all tattvas it is the basic resort of all souls- It is the 
Assumptive Energy of the Lord, since it is pervaded by the 
Lord. It is an impurity as it binds the souls before the 
onset of energy in the individual. It is delusive as causing 
false cognition. All the processes in the a$uddha may* are 
due to the energising of it by the gracious might of the 
Supreme Being. 24 It may be argued that if the intelligent 
agent cannot exercise his agency except with the help of 
a material cause, it amounts to saying that the agent is 
not a free agent. He has to depend on the material cause 
whenever he wants to act. Umapati Sivam answers that the 
material cause is eternal. 35 Material cause is only an 
Assumptive power of God and hence the question of its 
infringing the freedom of the agent by its non-availability 
does not arise at all. There is no equality of existence or 
function between the material cause and the agent The 
agent is the prior one (munnavan sp. 23). The initiative and 
freedom of the agent to create the world out of its 
material cause antecede the material cause itself- The 
Supremacy that is implied by being the cause of the 
world does not arise from the material cause, instead 
supremacy is derived from the Lord- Inexplaining the 



130 

phrase mudanmai adu koduttadena moiindid&re (sp. 23} f 
Madurai Sivaprakasar says that since God creates the words 
which has form, out of waja, which is devoid of form, 
He can create the world even without waya. It is interesting 
to note that the Supremacy becomes manifest only in the 
context of bestowal of Grace, when wa.ya as well as 
mzyeya ijfce karma functions no longer as a bond but 
deflects the light of Grace i.e., as aspects of the revelatory 
function itself (sp. 70). When Umapati says that primacy 
does not derive from the material cause, he implies that it 
indeed derives from the agent. The causal function of the 
material world derives from the function 'of agency which 
belodgs intrinsically to God who is pure spirit. In sp. 70, 
Umapati Sivam brings this out by saying that maya and its 
evolutes body, sense, world and objects become free media 
of manifestation of Divine light in the case of freed souls. 
This is one of the important truths of the Saive Siddhanta 
that is clearly brought out in Umapati's writings. Sivajnana 
Muniver emphasises the importance of this verse. It is likely 
that Umapati might have had in his mind the verse of the 
beginning with "pafai neydal" 26 



Umapati raises the question whether the saying that 
cosmic creation is occassioned by considerations of ripening 
of mala, does not conflict with God's freedom. Umapati 
says that God's creation of the world is indeed occassioned 
by a pre-cosmic state of impurity of the soul- He also adds 
that diversity of creation is to be found in terms of 
differences in "previous deeds" (munnai vinai sp. 24.) There 
are two kinds of previous deeds. It may be either the 
merit or demerit caused by the doing of right and wrong 
in thought action and speech- We may also refer to two- 
fold aspect of will in terms of appetition and aversion. 
Since the previous deeds referred to here, denote the deeds 
done in the beginning of creation, Umapati means here the 
second sense of karma which is understood as basic to 



131 



man's right and wrong, good, and evil, pleasurable and 
painful actions. According to him, karma is the original 
auxiliary, accounting for the diversity and manifestations of 
the nature of divine creation- Therefore both for the cosmic 
function of creation at all to take place and for its taking 
place in such heterogeneous manner like the creation of 
birds, animals, men etc, 27 Umapati admits the function of 
auxiliary and the occasioning causes- 28 Thus we have two 
kinds of fez^a-Original karma (mula vinai) and the subsequent 
karma (iruvinai). Sivajn&na Munivar also discusses this problem 
in the M&pMiyam* He first mentions the two kinds of karma 
and concludes the discussion by emphasising the importance 
of 



God is the absolote cause and the priority or agency 
pertains to God alone. This is clearly brought out by the 
statement that mala r maya and karma are non-intelligent and 
their function is conceivable only as conditions in the service 
of a cause- 80 They are freely used for the sake of souls. 
Umapati says that neither the instruments nor the souls 
which are incapable of knowing independently without 
material accessories, can themselves come together and effect 
the cosmic creation- 51 

Introduction of the factor of knrma gives rise to many 
issues. As God's creative function consists of investing the 
soul with body etc-, but in due accord with the previous 
deeds of the soul, the question arises as to whether the 
association of body etc-, with the soul comes first, or 
association with the deed- Past deeds will point to previous 
states of embodiment which are again in turn the conse- 
quences of past deeds. Is it wai/a or karma that first 
enveloped the soul ? 32 In answer to *his Umapati says that 
this question remains unanswered so long as a basic state 
of bondage is not accepted- Indeed if either maya or karma 
could bind a soul not already bound i.e-, free and pure, 
then even after the termination of waya and karma as a 



132 

result of our effort (aided by Grace), it is logically con- 
ceivable that they may again bind it. May& and karma 
are bonds that bind man who is already bound by &&QVU 
They do not bind the free-neither the eternally free God. 
nor the free man- 

Umapati states that soul's primordial bondage is as 
beginningless as the soul itself, and he considers this as 
the distinctive doctrine of Saivism. 33 M%ya and karma which 
are the consequences of this primordial bond, also are ulterior 
and beginningless in their function like husk, bran and 
sprout which sre closely related with the paddy-seed i.e-, 
while the sou! exists, the fbond of ignorance also exists along 
with it, and when that exists, the other bonds of mays. 
and karma also remain with it* 34 

The three bonds are all alike transcendental and not em- 
pirical. They condition the soul by forming as it were an 
inseparable part of it. We must make a distinction between 
attributes and flaws of a thing. These bonds are flaws like 
verdigris in copper and can be removed and attributes like cons- 
ciousness cannot be removed. Thus even though both charac- 
teristics and flaws are found in the same being, we must 
distinguish between the two. Umapati Sivam uses the analogy 
of sprout, bran and husk of the grain to bring out the inter- 
relation among the three bonds. Here sprout is compared to 
karma mala, bran to rnay& mala and husk to a&ava mala. Just 
like the three factors are alike in the seed without the distin- 
ction of priority or posteriority the three bonds are alike in their 
being- Experience of pleasure and pain (bhogam), the state of 
embodiment (bandham) and the state of being the experiencing 
agent (bhoJctrivam) are all of them co-evally present conditi- 
oning the agent. These three factors are caused respectively by 
karma, may a and mala. \\ j s only when the husk is present in 
the grain that the bran can cause the sprout to germinate and 
grow into the crop, 35 When the husk is removed, even though 
the bran and sprout are present, germination does not take 



133 



place* In the same way because of the defilement of the soul 
by %n%va f maya makes possible for the experiences of pleasure 
and pains in accordance with the law of karma. When anava 
mala ceases to veil the soul, even though karma and may& are 
present, the soul no longer experiences pleasure and pain* The 
logical priority of a^a.va mala in relation to two other malas t is 
conveyed by the example of husk. Before sprout and bran take 
shape and begin to function, the husk is present and bears in its 
womb the unformed grain also. This corresoonds with what is 
described in Saiva Siddhanta, the individual's state of transcen- 
dental isolation (a^-ava kevalam). Here we find difference of 
opinion among the commentators of the Sivajhana Bodham, 
Sivajnana Munivar holds that in the process of the experience 
of pleasure and pain by the soul the anavi maid acts as the 
efficient cause* karma mala as the material cause and the maya 
mala as the instrumental cause. Just like the husk in the paddy 
which induces the growth of the sprout therein, the anava mala 
is responsible for the soul's capacity for experience. Hence it 
is the efficient cause. Just as the bran aids the growth of the 
sprout out of the paddy* may&mala stands close to the soul 
with its body (tanu), instruments (Parana), worlds (bhuvana) 
and enjoyments (Wioga) and induces the soul's experience 
of pleasure and pain. Hence maya mala j s called the instru- 
mental cause- Lastly just as th3 sprout stems out from the paddy, 
karma mala creates the pleasure-pain experiences and so it is 
called the material cause. Sivagra Yogin differs from this and 
compares the bran which is in intinmte union with rice to the 
aiiava mala similarly connected with ths soul and the husk with 
maya which is comparatively apart from the soul. 86 Both com- 
mentators accept that the ^nava is the root cause of all troubles- 37 
Mayeya, the evoiutes of may a, are themselves called a species 
of mala because of the fact that they serve as loci for our 
experiences of pleasure and pain. Even though these make it 
possible for our experiences they constrict the cognitive powers 
of the individual by making him finite- Umapati describes this 
bond by stating the evolution of tattvas* The tattvas serve as 



134 



a kind of invariable vesture and generate experience for the 
individual soul. Umapati Sivarn also states in one line that the 
order of involution is the same as that of evolution. 38 

Umapati Sivam distinguishes the %tma tatty as, vidya 
Mtvas and &iva tattvas. &iva tattvas are not included under 
mayeya mala by Umapati- The vidya tattvas incline the 
soul to worldly experience. They are kala (animating particle), 
AfiZa (time), niyati (destiny), vidya (the cognitive intimation) 
and fag a (conative inclination), 39 These are evolved from Maya 
(i.e., impure may&] through the agency of Srikantha. Prakrti 
is evolved from kala. Prakrti tattva gives rise to gun^ tattva 
from which emanates the tattva of buddhi which again gives 
rise to ahankara tattva. Ahankara is of three kinds according 
as sattviJca, raias or tamos quality dominates- From s&Mc 
ahanJc^ra which is called taijasa, are evolved the mind and the 
five senses of hearing, touch, sight, taste and smell. From 
R&jasic ahankara (vaikari) are envolved the tattvas of activity, 
beinning with speaking. fromtamasic ahankara (bhutati) emanate 
the five subtle bases (tanmatras) 0f the five elements begin- 
ning with the principle of sound. The five elements, ether, air, 
fire, water and solid are developed each out of its respective 
tanmatras. The titular deities of the five elements are Brahma, 
Vi?nu, Rudra, Mahe?vara and Sada?iva of the regions in pure 
m&y&. Thus the seven vidya tattvas and the twenty four 
%tma tattvas consitute the core of may a mala. 

After explaining maye,ya, f Umapati Sivam proceeds to 
explain the nature of karma. Karma is beginningless (anadi). 
It is bsginningless in the sense that it has no assignable 
beginning, every beginning of its series pointing backward 
to preceding causes. Karma is responsible for the ever- 
ensuing embodiment. It is also what accounts for the mani- 
foldness and diversities of experiences in each birth- Karm a 
is also what comes in the wake of such experiences issuing 
in acts of Commission and omission and also serves as 
the occasioning cause of embodiment for souls in a most 
imperceptible and subtle form, (ati sutema karma). It mani- 



135 



fests itself as pleasure-pain experiences when it is technically 
called Prarabdha (meaning, what has begun). At this stage 
karma is present in a subtler unseen manner (suksma) 
accounting for the varied nature of experiences. It is 
accumulated as the surplus and duly matures at its proper 
time in their respective experiences which are diverse with 
different individuals. Karma at this stage is called Ba&ita 
(literally, what is accumulated). Karma manifests as acts 
of right and wrong in a gross perceptible form accompanying 
pleasure pain experiences. Karma j s beginningless like a stream 
wherethe distinction between preceding and succeeding is purely 
relative- But the underlying impulse behind the manifold mani- 
festations is karma which is an impurity that conditions the 
man trans - empirically and in this respect it is like anava. 
Karma invariably follows the soul.* Karma is performed 
not only as overt actions but also as speech and inner 
propensities/ 1 Umapati Sivam makes a significant point here. 
The three modes of wakeful experience i-e-, cognition, 
conation, and affection are the means whereby one experi- 
ences the fruits of "karma. The experience of the fruits of 
karma is due to the benevolent Grace of God who makes 
it possible for the individual to have experience, thereby 
bringing about an end to the previous karma. But through 
the very process of experiencing the fruits of previous 
karma, f re $h karma is earned/ 2 This is the difficulty with 
regard to karma- The medicine cures the disease from one 
point of view and at the same time it seems to contri- 
bute, as it were, to its peipetuation- Karma operates from 
the buddhi tattva and colours the thought and action of 
the individual- 43 When there is no embodiment at the time 
of dissolution it has its locus in waj/a. At "the time of its 
existance in the locus of ^aya, succeeding dissolution and 
preceding creation, karma exists in the form of accumulated 
merit and demerit. Whenever we talk of karma j n general, 
we refer to this accumulated stock of merit and demerit. 



136 



Umapati sivam then proceeds to explain the characteris- 
tics of prarabdha which presents itself in the form of 
experiences of pleasure and pain- 44 Pleasure manifests 
itself in the form of high birth, longevity of life and quality 
and quantity of enjoyments. Pain presents itself in the form 
of the opposites i.e., low birth, shortness of life, fugitiveness 
of enjoyments and the presence of suffering- These are 
potentially present in the individual in the form of possibilities. 
When these possibilities manifest themselves in life, the 
serial order of their occurrence in life is not however 
commensurate with the order of their cause in previous 
existence but rather in accord with the degree of 'ripeness'. 
We liquidjte the load of previous &a/w&a by means of 
experience. The experiences come to the individual soul in 
response to previous deeds in the two distinguishable modes 
of pleasure and pain. They are classified in terms of the 
three occasioning factors, the objects, the soul and the deity-* 5 
Even when the experience of pleasure and pain are occasioned 
by objects or by souls, deity is responsible for giving 
these experiences through such agencies. The deity apportions 
pleasure-Pain experiences to the souls according to their 
karma. j n this sense, the deity may be said to know in 
advance the experiences- But the deity is not fettered by 
these experiences while the individual is bound by these- 
The reason for this is to be found in the fact that while 
God knows these without attachment and aversion and so 
may not be said to experience these, the soul knows 
always these/ with attachment and aversion- Thus whenever 
an individual knows a thing, it experiences at the same 
time with the overtones of attachment and aversion. It is 
this element of attachment and its opposite i.e-, primordial 
desire for experience and the consequent aversion for any- 
thing that thwarts the objects of desire is called karma 
mala. K^rma mala is the root of which Sancita, pr&rabdha 
and agamya are the fruits. 



137 

Then the question arises how the new karma occurs 
when the previous; karma, h liquidated through experience. 
Umapati Sivam replies that while the effects of past-karma 
are 'liquidated' through experience, the root karma of the 
form of attachment and aversion is however not 'destroyed', 
On the other hand, the root-karma js active and contributes 
to the origin of fresh karma in the w^ke of experiencing 
the fruits of previous karma- 



The. ..tyciva maia t tha ultimate bond causes beginninglessly 
the propensity of attachment and aversion and thus we have 
the three iold experience of karma because of %n&va mala. 
We can consider the new influx of karma also in two ways 
i-e, doing the good (hiiam) and doing the opposite (ahitam). 
There is also another classification of deeds i-e., the deeds 
done wilfully and those that are done unconsciously. The 
individual is responsible for both these kinds of action- 
When we do an action, we do it with the attachment and 
aversion. We also perform good (Mia) and bad (ahita) actions 
to others and this constitutes zg&wya. The %>g&mya attaches 
to the individual sou! in the form of puny a and papa for 
which ano'her name is sancita. The genesis of ^Q^jnyo. and 
s&ntita is explained in this way. Umapati Sivam hints here 
that the 5 pr&rabdha experience-experience of pleasure and pain 
arise as a result of the cumulative experience of both 
and 



Regarding Sonata Karma, Umapati Sivam says that the 
deeds of commission of good or its opposite, go into the 
stock of merit and demerit which is called sancita. He says 
that sandta consists in the sum total of merit and dermit. 
He says that merit does not cancel demerit and that the 
only way of cancelling demerit is through experience of its 
fruits in the form of enjoyment. Kazma cannot be written 
off except through experience (bhoga) o f the fruits of Karma. 
This is the law of karma. Umapati Sivam does not stop 
here, but suggests rituals for expiating merit and demerit- 



138 

The Vedas and Aganrsas provide a safeguard in the form of 
recommendation that by means of a commission of good 
agamya with a specific resolve (Sa&kalpa] t it is possible that 
one can free oneself from the eftects of particular demerit. If 
one puts forth effort for expiation in accordance with the 
scriptural recommendation, the affliction due to sanciia can 
be removed. He also says that if it is not possible for one to do 
it directly, this can be achieved by indirect means, having it 
done on one's behalf by a professional- It is equally also possi- 
ble that the demerit can be removed by some one else doing 
it on one's behalf without one's knowledge of it- Admission 
of these possibilities even within the context of the life of 
bondage becomes significant- It points to the fact that we can 
have the possibility of freedom from the working of the law 
of karma itself. Umapati Sivam says that the rest of the residua* 
stock of sancita could be set at naught by God- The Lord appe- 
ars in the form of a preceptor as a result of Sivapunya which 
consists of cary% f kriy& and yoga. Sancita kftrma does not 
cease to exist until the bonds are destroyed by the grace of 
God- There is no scope for the termination of karma until God 
comes and instructs the soul- Futher the karma continues to 
sustain the empirical life until the advent of God's Grace. 

Umapati Sivam says that there is no scope for the life 
of spirit for the individual soul unless these functions are 
terminated and transformed. Umapati mentions and discusses 
the five bonds on the basis of their functions. At first 
there is the basic bond which is responsible for the soul's 
craving of the things which are prohibited. This function is 
trans-empirical and naturally inclines the soul to agency in 
respect of experience. Against this we have the bond of 
%nava, Secondly we have the bond called tirodh&yi which 
actuates the bonds. This function seems to be hostile to 
human beings, but if we understand the real nature of this 
bond, we can realize that this bond is really beneficial to 
man. This &akti causes the bonds to act so that the bonds 
may ripen and ultimately be destroyed- Thus though the 



139 

r/ of God is called a bond, it is not really a bond. 
& js the next bond of the soul. It binds the soul in 
the form of body (ianu) f instruments of knowledge (karana), 
world (bhuvana) and enjoyments (bhoga). Before the dawn 
of the knowledge of God, these four factors function 
conditioning the soul and after advent of knowledge, these 
factors deflect tne grace of the Lord- Karma is the fourth 
bond which is invariably present in every individual conditioning 
him in the form of desire and aversion. This bond subjects 
the soul to wearying rounds of birth and death. The last 
bond~ (rr^yeya) stands for the tattvas accounting for the 
finite and limiting character of empirical experience- Grace 
in the positive sense of Saiva Siddhanta becomes intelligible 
when all these five bonds are transformed and when 
Urodhwa &akti changes the Arul Sakti of God (para Saktf). 



MEANS TO RELEASE 

The soul in the kevala state is completely under the bon- 
dage of anava which obscures the capacities of the soul- When 
the soul is associated with taitvas, the soul exercises the 
faculties of icch& t j&ana and kriya, but in such a way that it 
comes under the bondage of karma and is consequently led into 
seemingly endless births and deaths entailing much suffering. 
The cause of this miserable state for the soul is its association 
with Qnava the original bond ( mtila mala). The soul wrongly 
thinks that the pleasures of the world will be everlasting and 
consequently it sinks to a degraded state. This maybe compared 
to a state of a king's son who in his early years* being captured 
by gypsies, is brought up in a crude environment and has not 
had the benefit of living in a palace as befitting his status- When 
the soul knows the true nature of the fleeting pleasures of the 
world, it feels disgusted with them and is no longer inclined 
to seek them. Due to the intelligence of the soul, having the 
guidance of Siva's grace, the soul realizes the worthlessness 
of worldly objects and pleasures derived through them, and 
feeling throughly disconted with its life hitherto, looks to the 
enernat saviour, Lord Siva- 

UmaPati Sivam says that the fruit of Saiva Siddhanta is the 
result of following the principles laid down in the &aiv%.gjmas. 1 
According to the Saiv&gamas, the soul has to practise carya e 
Jcriya and yoga and get jnana before it could meet the Lord- 



141 



Umapati Sivam also says that ail actions have for their 
purpose knowledge and the results of caryd, Jcriya 
ana \oga lead to saloka f samipa and^arupa.- The practice of 
carya, kriyu, yoga andjnana are also ca! led ^a^ m&rga^ satputra- 
mwgv., saha m&rga and <8nm%rga m The results of the first three 
i-e , saloka, s&m'pa and sarupa are called graded release (partial 
release)- Release attained by jn&na is sujya i.e., perfect release. 
The first three are the means to attain complete release- 
Sivajft&na Siddhiy%r explains these oayy^ f kriya, yoga and jSRna* 
We have to follow these observences in carya. They are 
cleaning the temple, smearing the floor of the temple with 
cow-dung, wearing garlands of different kinds of flowers for 
adorning the idol of Siva, uttering the praise of the Lord, 
lighting the temple lamos. maintaining flower gardens and, 
offering one's services to any devotee of Siva. Those who do 
these, merit Sivaloh? or sahkj. (saloJca - living in the same 
world as Siva,) Getting ready flowers, incense, light, water 
(for bathing the Idol), food (for offering), etc- are important 
observences in kriya. The devotee has to perform the five 
kinds of purification- 4 He also has to make a seat out of mula- 
mantra for Siva to occupy. Siva is to ba contemplated as having 
occupied it, externalised (as of the form of light), worshipped 
with true devotion and He must be willingly praised. Homa js 
to be performed daily. Following these observences is kriya. 
and the fruit of such a worship is the attainment of S&mipa 
(nearness to Siva). Worship here relates to the form-formless 
aspect of Siva and the mind is included with the external 
senses in kriy&, 

Pursuit of saJia marga (i.e., yoga) .requires fulfilment of 
the following : the senses are to be turned away from their 
objects, inhaling and exhaling must be controlled ; vital air 
must be directed along susumna when activities of manas 
cease ; the sequence of mantras for the six adh%ras like 
the muladhara must be learnt and the deities presiding over 
these adharas are to be worshipped- 4?>Pa existing in the 
form of &iva can be seen in the six Adharas. Uniting with 



142 



the deities like Vinayaka, one must go up from 
to Brahmarandhra. The lotus in Brahmiranzhra must be made 
to blossom- The nectar flowing from the lower part of 
Candramandala is to be circulated within the body ; and 
contemplation of light that takes within itself every splen- 
dour is to crown all these. Those who thus perform yoga, 
having eight parts in order to destroy karma attain similarity to 
Siva's form- Lastly we come to sanmarga. One has to study 
all the art8 ft pur anas, karma kanda in the Agamas and 
the literature of other faiths, before arriving at the conclusion 
that these are all inferior- Then one has to study by 
onedelf the jnana fastras which set forth the nature of 
Pati f pa$u and P%su defined per accidens and the nature 
of Pati per essence; hear the truth about these expounded 
and reflected on them One who without distinctions into 
knower, knowledge and object of knowledge, has knowledge 
of unity with impartite, eternal, pervasive, existent, intelli- 
gent and blissful Siva non - differently, attains sayujya 
which is supreme release- 

Regarding the significance of carya, kriya and yoga for 
entrance to jnana, it has been said that in carya and brtya 
stages, the attention of the soul is diverted from the outer 
world to Siva through the commandments which are prescribed 
for the soul in the first two stages. The significance of yoga 
consists in this, that through this stage* the soul comes to 
the conclusion that knowledge attained through the outer 
and inner organs, is not true knowledge and that for the 
attainment of true knowledge a higher medium than th 
senses is necessary. 5 Thus the first three are merely pre- 
paratory states preliminary to reach the final state. The 
enjoyments of $$Joka f samlpa t s&rupa are not permanent. 6 
When the merits of the soul are exhausted, the soul must 
come back to earth. If the chain of births is to be cut off, 
jmna m&rga is the only way; for, as ignorance has been the 
cause of delusion and misery* so it is knowledge that can 
bring about enlightenment and happiness- Even meditation 



143 

will not help if we do not have knowledge- Meditation is 
possible only with the help of instruments and mind, and 
these instruments and mind cannot take us beyond the 
material world. 7 Any hope of attaining Siva, by meditation 
without the aid of instruments is doomed to failure, for as 
soon as the instruments are dispensed with, then the dark 
state of kevala sets in- Though meditation and other pre- 
paratory stages may be dispensed with, jnana marga cannot 
be ruled out if Siva is to be attained. The vedas, the Agamas 
and Puranas proclaim thatby/namj alone release is possible- 8 

Umapati Sivam says that this j&ana is of two forms i.e., 
grace (Uruvarui) and aiv5gamas which deal with the grace 
of the Lord. Grace helps the soul to remove the evil effects 
of mala. While mala itself is eternal, its evil effects, can be 
removed- One who studies, ihe ^aivaQamas, gets the knowledge 
about the three entities Pati, Pasu and Pas&. Madura! Sivapra- 
kasar commenting on the verse 10 fp.45) says that the j&ana 
of the three authors of Tevaram and Karaikkal Ammaiyar is 
tiruvatul jnana and the jnana of the teachers, beginning from 
Nandi Deva* who get knowledge through the Saivagamas, 
belongs to the second type- He also quotes two verses from the 
Sfvajnana Siddhiydr (Svapaksa payiram 4 and parapaksa 10) 
for supporting his view- The first verse mentioned above states 
that some love Siva (without the help of books ) due to their pre- 
vious good deeds and Siva gives them salvation. The other verse 
states that Arul Nandi Sivam expounds the SivajMna Siddhiya? 
to those who want to know the means of attaining the feet 
of the Lord and not to those who are well -versed in the Saiva- 
gamas or to those who are steeped in complete ignorance. The 
subject was first taught to Nandi Deva by Lord Siva and Nandi 
Deva in turn imparted the teaching to sanatkunwa. Following 
the guidance given by Madurai Sivaprakasar, it is clear that the 
experiences of the Tevaram teachers are important in Saiva 
Siddhanta. We may take the clue in verse 7 of the Sivaprakasam 
for this fact- (perunul Coona arattiranal vilaivaday SP 7). 
Here peruntil includes the Tevaram, besides denoting the 



144 

Saivagamas, according to the commentary of Madura'* 
Sivaprakasar- 

The necessfty of a Guru cannot 1 be disputed because 
it is through Hrs instruction that the true significance of 
the scriptures can be made known/ It is God Himself who*' 
can teach the soul about Himself. 10 It is impossible for the soul 
to know of God without ; the ; help of God, as it is impos- 
sible for the crystal to^ reflect without the sun- The ins- 
truments of the soul* know neither themselves nor the sou& 
that directs them- In the same way, the soul does not 
know either itself or Pati who guides the soul. Hence 
Siva who dwells within the soul as imperceptibly as ether 
in water, will not be known by the soul unless He 
manifests Himself- 11 Further, it is only God, who can 
purify the mala fettered soul as it is He that knows best 
the unhappy condition of the soul, even as the inmates of 
the house know best the physical ailments of the patient 
in the house. 12 It is also said that the complete cleansing 
of the soul is not possible without Siva appearing as a 
Guru, because the removal of the snake poison is not 
possible without the aid of the snake-charmer. 13 Further it 
is said that the attempt to attain release with the help of 
anyone other than Siva is comparable to the blind submit- 
ting to be led by the blind. The release that transcends 
all tattvas can be reached only through the aid of Siva 
who is pure c^. 1 * Thus we may now conclude that the 
learning through Siva Himself is the condition, sine qua non 
for the attainment of blessedness- 15 

Umapati says that in order to make the best use of 
the preceptor's instruction, one should attend to it with 
concentration, reflect on what is taught> ascertain the truth 
of it and fix that result so as to attain the state where 
Siva comes to be in union with the soul. 16 From the Guru's 
instruction* the soul learns about its nature so that it can 
aspire to realize all its inherent possibilities- We may now 



145 



consider what Umapati says about the nature of Divine 
wisdom, (jnana vaymai). Without the help of the instru- 
ments of knowledge, the individual can see nothing. In 
the kevalavastha ths sou! has no experience of objects, not 
even of a fleeting nature- Now with the instruments, the 
individual cannot attain the feet of the Lord. fn the 
sakalavastha, the senses partially manifest knowledge of the 
individual. How then can the individual soul realize Divine 
Wisdom ? 

Umapati says that Divine wisdom is communicated to the 
Individual soul by God Himself graciously coming as a 
prepeptor as a result of long-earned penance. 17 God shows 
the way to sever connection from these instruments and to 
reach His feet 18 In the sakalavastha, the tattvas are provided 
by the concealing Sakti for the individual soul to effect partial 
release from the fettering effects of Pay * The soul will have 
finite experience and this will hasten the state of ripeness 
for Pdfa so that Paso, may become ready for removal. When 
this state occurs, God appears as the preceptor and effects 
purification of tattvas by means of adhava &uddhi and thereby 
effects severence from the finitizrng effects of Pafiff. Thus the 
individual soul will have a new state of knowledge and life 
in which its knowledge, action and feeling being unconstricted, 
become infinite in due conformity with the infinitude of &iva, 
&aktieven in its embodied state of existence. This is technically 
described as the symbolism of reaching the Divine Feet. 

Umapati explains the nature and form of Divine knowledge 
which is made accessible to the soul when God and man are 
united as preceptor and pupil. He says that Divine knowledge 
pervades the world for the ultimate good of the soul unaffected 
by the intelligent and non-intelligent entities in the world 
The intelligent and the non-intelligent world function toward 
their appointed destiny because of the benign presence of the 
concealing Sakti. Pali transcends the intelligent and non- 
intelligent entities and functions for the benefit of giving 
good equally to all. Umapati Sivam says, 



146 



None is dear to Him; none is hated by Him- 

AH alike are His favourites. 19 

Appar says/ 

'He will not be good to those who approach Him not; 

He is good to those who approach Him; 

Yet He has no partiality, likes nor dislikes- 

He is called Sankara as He is beneficient. 20 

Umapati Sivam explains this with the help of an analogy- 
The sunlight permits the crystal to show its natural lustre 
and the power to reflect the colours with which' it comes 
fnto contact. When the colours fall on the crystal and when 
the sun is not directly above the crystal, then the crystal 
reflects the colours with which it is associated When the 
sun is directly above the crystal, then the crystal will 
not reflect the colours even though the colours are 
associated with the crystal. In the same way, the concealing 
Sakti of God makes the soul plunge into the worldly experiences 
when the impurity attaching to the soul is not mature. When 
the evil effects of mala are made fit for removal, the same 
concealing Sakti of God changes into Arul &akti and bestows 
release on the soul. In neither case &akti is affected by either 
the inteHigent souls or by the non- intelligent Pasa* 

Now the question arises regarding the nature of rnaya and 
karma. When Divine knowledge is given to the soul by 
God's Grace, waya and Tear ma were used as instruments by 
the concealing Sakti of God in the service of forging of bonds* 
What happens to the two species of pa$a i.e., maya and 
when the concealing Sakti of God rs changed into Ay 
Umapati Sivam says significantly that when the individual is 
under the influence of a&ava, the dark bond, the impure m&ya 
and its effect mayeya O n the one hand and the inexorable, 
karma which would not leave the soul unless it is experienced 
function as elements of darkness (mo.ru\in\l iruiay nirkum SP 
70). Thus may*,, m%yeyc* and karma bind the soul because 
the soul is defiled by %.&ava, This is the reason why empirical 



147 



experience, though it is an advance over pre-empirical dark- 
ness (kevala) t j s itself a part of one long night. Thus 
sabtfavasths, itself is a constituent of bondage. When the soul 
comes under the influence of Divine grace which dispels the 
darkness of bond, then these so called bonds also function 
as elements of light (aru\inil oliyay nirkum SP 70). Thus 
when Divine knowledge dawns on the soul, the erstwhile 
adventitious instruments of bondage become instruments for 
giving bliss to the soul. Umapati says in Tiruvarutpayan that 
when there is defect in the tongue, even the sWeet milk will 
be bitter and when the defect in the tongue is cured, then 
tfie milk will taste sweet 21 In this way when a&ava main, 
dominates the soul, then the bliss of Siva will not be tasted 
by the soul and when the evil effects of &&ava mala are 
destroyed, then the bliss of Siva is manifested to the soul- 
Thus it is explained that even though God is merciful, the 
soul suffers due to its association with %^ava. if the soul is 
under the influence of anva r then tirodhayi act on the soul- 
If the soul is freed from the evil effects of a^ava^, then Arul 
&*kti acts on the soul. 

Kanchi Jfianaprakasa Swamigal in his commentary on 
"Unmai viafkkam' quotes this poem. 

asswr dpcu&rr; <sB-i_Q/rrrrf 



(5j5/f 
GLJfP(/3efr (S^crPujfruj 

and says that the sun is compared to Siva, the eye to the 
soul, the light of sun to the grace of God and darkness 
to mnla m The eye which is encircled by darkness gets light 
through the rays of the sun and becomes light when it 
comes under the influence of the sun. In the same way 
when the soul comes under the gracious influence of 6iva 
the soul enjoys the bliss of Sjva and even the mala subsides 
under the grace of oiva. The commentator also says that 
we must combine the two verses (Simprakasam 32 and 70) 



148 

to get a clear understanding of the Siddhanta position- 33 
These two verses speak about five entities i.e., maya 
m^yeya, karma, (iruvinai) m'arul (tirodhayi) and iruf (&qava) f 
if Tirodhayi acts on the soul, m%y& t mamayai (here meaning 
m&yeya) and karma become darkness- If Arw/ s a kti acts on 
the soul, then the three become light. 



SivajMna Munivar explains this verse of 

(70) when he explains the relation between God and 

The question is raised how the relation of pervasion between 

God and soul can also hold good for the relation between 

God and m&y&. Sivajfiana Munivar replies that ^aja is 

pervaded by the soul and since the soul is pervaded by 

oiva it follows by implication that mays. is also pervaded 

by God and he quotes the verse beginning with 'm&ya, 

m&moyai' fully. Then the objector raises another question 

that if it is the case with may& 'V znava mala also related 

to God in the same way, because Zn^va j s also vy&pya - 

\ e., pervaded by the Lord? Sivajfiowa Munivar replies that 

znava mala is not related to God in the same way as maya, 

because even though anava is pervaded by the Lord, it is 

opposed to the Lord, while maya is not so opposed to the 

Lord. Sivajnana Munivar argues that since rn^yeya is also 

considered among the eight forms (astamtirta) of the Lord 

like the soul, the same relation that exists between God 

and soul, also exists between God and maya. Sivajnana 

Munivar says that the only factor we have to take into 

consideration here is that since the soul is capable of having 

consciousness the soul has a special relation with the Lord. 

The commentator also strengthens his interpretation on two 

other grounds (i) by considering the sense conveyed by the 

order of words (Cteirp JL^)65) anc | (jj) by relating this verse 

(sp 70) with the previous verse (Le , sp 69). He 

says that the sense (e) (w*trp&) | n the phrase /B^ 

fTDU> Q U fp $C5)fD/5jS (5 IT 6OT G LD <gF,TTSTtb CT^Ufl'. 

cannot mean definite sense (Gjsf&ptfc). Since the phrase 



149 

speaks about jr&na definitely, it cannot also have the ques- 
tioning sense. If the meaning of 6T^?^ ; s taken to mean 
then it amounts to convey the sense that j&ana \$ 
which is tautology- Therefore v*trvu> is used to dis- 
tinguish between two or more entities (i$iP]B9so). The commen- 
tator concludes that this phrase is used to convey the sense 
that only Pat* jn&na is independent and p%$& and pa$u ju&na 
are not independent. Thus according to him, pafu and p%$a> 
jfiana are explained in the 69th verse and the remaining 
p<7ji/2ana is explained in 70th verse. The gist of the 70th 
verse according to Slvajnana Munivar is that the function of 
ma#a, *n%yeya and karma depends on the nature of the soul* 
If the soul is bound by &n*wa t these three i.e., maya, 
m&yeyn and karma bind the souls with the initiative provided 
by the concealing akti. If the soul is freed from the evil 
effects of atfflva, majya, m^yeya and karma help the sou ' 
like ATU\ Sakti. 

After considering the nature of Divine knowledge, Uma- 
pati proceeds to deal with the effects of attaining Divine 
knowledge- He classifies the effects under three topics, i*e, 
Insight into the nature of the soul (atma dargana), purification 
of soul (atma suddU) and benefit to the soul (atma lab ham) m 
These three are the effects of attaining Divine knowledge. 
Urnapati says that purification of tattvas (fattva suddhi) and 
accession to Divine knowledge are the two factors that consi- 
tute 'knowledge of the soul 7 (atma dar&ana). Tattva suddhi 
implies freedom from pasa which is more specifically freedom 
from sense of V and 'mine' in respect of tattvas. This isexplained 
by Umapati Sivam as the process whereby the preceptor 
elevates pupil's knowledge to the infinitude of Divine Sakti- 
By accession to 'soul-knowledge*, Urnapati emphasises the 
indispensability of Divine knowledge for the manifestation of 
soul's action and knowledge. This is technically called &varu- 
pam. Urnapati says that God Himself comes in the form of a 
preceptor as a result of one's penances and reveals this truth 
to the soul. Soul's surrender of agency is emphasised in 



150 



Purification of the soul is the next stage of realization- This 
is described by Umapati as surrender of one's efforts, (tan 
nittal). Though Umapati terms the phrase, 'tan pa%i 
somewhat negatively, the significance implied by this is 
positive* Meykandar phrases it in positive terms, as 'irai p&& 
tinal' which state occurs after one passes through the surren- 
der of agency. Surrender of one's efforts is a negative way of 
expressing 'thy will be done'. The soul surrenders itself by 
doing the will of God. The point to ba noted here is that the 
soul must renounce the sense of even '( serve'. Here the soul 
leaves everything to God and is not even conscious of servif)9' 
The upper limit of spiritual realization is described as atmu 
l&bham* This is explained as immersion in the experience qf 
of Being given by the Divine knowledge. This results as the 
culmination of self surrender and union. This state of immer- 
sion in the experience of Being constitutes the content of 
liberation and bliss is concretely present in it, This state is 
different from the preceding state of not doing anything but 
by the will of God (^eueyr^STrtrsb <&tevrr$ 66ffrB>p}iq( 
Q&tuujfT $&o) where there is only a foretaste of bliss which 
arises as a negative consequence of dissolution of 



Umapati explains the continuity of the three levels of 
experience i.e., atma darsana, atma suddhi and &tma l&bham. He 
says, that if God is known by the soul, then it can perceive itself 
by being itself, To understand the importance of this, he recalls 
how the soul knows with help of Divine wisdom- The soul 
cannot know anything with the help of its own faculties* The 
soul is limited constitutionally and it can know only through 
the means of manifested of knowledge (vya&jakas). In the 
state of bondage, the soul knows with the help of instru- 
ments of mSya and in the state of release, it knows with 
the help of Grace. Thus it can know only with the help of 
instruments either in bondage or in releaese. Even when the 
soul is aided by the Infinte knowledge, the soul has only finite 
knowledge. It can know or experience only one by one- This 
is the reason why the soul is said to be a finite knower 



151 

{kincijnan). Divine grace, which is infinite in nature, is the 
invariable aid and pre-condition of finite - knowledge- The 
question before us is - how does the finite knower know him- 
self? Umapati says that if one can look with the eyes of the 
light of Divine grace, looking at itself i.e., the Divine grace* 
then one can also see one's own soul together with Grace. 
One can see the condition which makes sight possible, not 
by looking at it, but by looking with it i.e., one must not 
stand as distinct from the condition and see it, but the eye 
must transport itself to the place of light and become aware 
of it The sou! can see itself only from this changed perspec- 
tive. The soul cannot stand apart from Grace, and know either 
Divine grace or itself as it does in the case of knowing objects. 
The soul has to become one with Grace which is the general 
condition of our knowing and perceive itself only as one with 
it, never as a knowing subject which stands apart from the 
things known- It may be seen from this account how know- 
ledge of soul involves the fusion of awareness of Divine 
presence (Siva r&pam) and a similar awareness of oneself 
{atma darsana) vis-a-vis the Divine presence* Meykandar also 
expresses the same idea with greater force in the prefactory 
verse in the Stvajnann Bodham, by using both the negative and 
positive expressions. 2 * 

Umapati explains the continuity of the three levels of 
realization. If we abandon the habit of seeing with the eyes 
of the light of Divine Grace, we may know how soul puri- 
fication (atina suddhi) and self - realization or gain (atma. 
lofcham) are implictly contained in it- When the soul investi- 
gates the nature of the tattvas and the inner dynamism 
that is at work in them, it understands the tattvus to be 
alien to itself and there will dawn on the soul the gro- 
wing light of Divine Wisdom* If the soul identifies itself 
with the general condition at work underlying the tattvas, 
and if the soul is immersed in it without attending to 
tattvas, the soul gets purified- In this state of purity, there 



!52 



must be no assertion of the individual consciousness* After 
this stage is reached i-a-, when the soul is purified, the 
soul knows under the all - pervasive Omnipresence of the 
Highest (parainirnivu). This is technically called soul's 
purity. This can also be looked upon as knowledge of God 
in His Majesty and Omnipresence ({yivadar&ana). it is only 
when this stage of self - emptying and complete subjection 
to the Divine light without even the consciousness of an 
ideal distinction between the two is reached, that the 
supreme Being appears to the sou!- When the knowledge 
of the soul is purified, Being is disclosed to the soul* The 
soul must not stand apart from Divina grace. It must trans- 
cend even the fact of knowing Divine light which is the 
underlying principle of all tattvas* 

It may be asked whether, apart from Divine Wisdom 
dawning on the soul, there is a Supreme Being that is 
prior even to the Divine light- Umapati says that the full 
light of the sun has the sun as its source- Similarly the 
spotless Supreme Being is the source of grace and bright 
grace of God is His power- The Sight of pure knowledge 
in Gcd is called His power i.e., Sakti- Sakti is pure 
and transcends the finite conditions of p<*su and pzfa 
This Sakti at the same time points to its transcendent 
source i.e., Being. Without Being that power does not stand 
alone- Just as the sunlight dispels darkness that pervades 
everywhere and shows the sun to us, so the light of 
divine grace dissolves the base bonds of darkness and paves 
the way for the delightful disclosure of Being to the sooi 
liberated from the bonds- 

There seem to be two transitions by using the example 
of sunlight pointing to the sun. First, when we see the 
object, the light serves as the unobstructive condition showing 
from behind the perceiver who is unaware of the assistance 
of light Umapati says in Tiruvani\payan t 



153 

*He who places himself behind the light of truth, 
arising out of darkness attains bliss- He who places his 
self before it, endures pain'- 25 This suffering is the characteristic 
of the soul when it Is bound by the bond of a&ava When 
the eye ceases to be preoccupied with visual objects, it 
becomes united with the 'condition' where the light as such 
is perceived. When Sight in its turn points to its source, 
the subtle transition takes place. As light and its source 
are related intimately, &iikti and its source Siva, are also 
related intirncitely. At first the soul does not know how 
the nrodh^na Sakti acts and falsely identifies itself with the 
objects of the world. 

When the sou! begins to investigate the source of 
suffering, it comes to know that ail sufferings arise due to 
attachment and aversion. When the soul renounces the 
sense of T and 'mine' it is freed from the fetter of p&$Q 
and becomes united with Divine grace- This is becoming 
one with Him and abiding in service unto Him- (ekan&ki irai 
pan! nirral - Sivajfana Bodham 10th sutra). There is again a 
transition from this state and the Supreme Being is disclosed 
in this transition* When the soul becomes one with Him 
and acts as He directs, It must transcend even the duality 
of knowledge and revelation i-e-, it must not assert its 
individuality, but must act as directed by the Lord- This is 
technically called &ivabhogam. The transition from the state 
of union with Divine grace to that state, where Being as 
the source of Divine grace is perceived, is a subtle one. At 
this stage, the soul must not yi Id to the lingering effects of 
pasutva. This transition is possible as a result of persistent 
surrender and selt-effacement on the part of the soul and 
this must be followed by a fife of union with Divine grace. 
Umapati Sivam says that when the omniscient grace of the 
Lord dawns on the soul, there will be a most natural 
temptation to lay claim to omniscience and omnipotence- 
Due to its dissociation with the bonds the soul may feel 



154 

that it knows everything and it may be tempted to perform 
cosmic functions like the Lord. A feeble person possessed 
by a ghost performs the mighty acts of a ghost. In the 
same way the soul engrossed by the all knowing gr c ce of 
the Lord, would possess all attributes of God and perform 
His five functions in the same manner as He does. This 
is the view of the Sivasama v&da. But this temptation must 
be resisted. If the ghost possesses a blind or dumb or 
lame man, it cannot make him see or speak or walk; simi- 
larly the omniscient grace of the Lord which possesses the 
soul, can only develop its innate powers, and will not make 
it do the functions of God, which He dees by taking any 
form He pleases. When the omniscient grace of the Lord 
dawns on the soul, what happens is a full development of 
its own innate powers- It will not make it do the function of 
Lord. When the evil effects of #asa are destroyed, it is the 
privilege of the sou! to take immense joy in the glory of the 
Lord. If by freedom of the soul, we mean having literal equality 
with God In function* then it is delusion* To perform cosmic 
functions by free assumption of appropriate forms that He 
chooses is the privilege of God that is implied by His transcen- 
dence. 

The soul should understand the nature of knowledge 
which it comes to have in its embodied state through the 
instruments like Kala and other tattvas. If it does so, on 
reaching the stage in which the base bonds are got rid of, 
the seirl should take shelter under the grace of the Lord so 
that the soul does not contact the said instruments* At 
this stage, the soul should not think of Grace as an extran- 
eous condition, which helps its knowledge and action, but 
must view them as nothing apart from Divine Grace. The 
soul's intelligence is illumined by Grace* If the sou* 
abides in Grace rn this way, then the Supreme (transcendent) 
gain will be within the sight of the soul. Madura! Sivapra- 



155 

darjana. When the soul understands the nature of the tattvas 
and when it is associated with Grace of the Lord, the soul 
gives importance to Grace leaving the assertive intelligence 
of the soul. This is ca!!ed atma suddl.i. When the individual 
soul persists in its efforts in giving importance to Grace of 
the Lord, leaving behind the assertive intelligence (atma 
bhoda), then the Supreme gain will become accessible to the 
soul and this is called aima labMm- 

The Sivaivaitin maintains that the sou) becomes God 
Himself in the state of release- According to him the 
question is - why God should appear to the soul as dis- 
tinct from itself? why not speak of the goal as consisting 
of becoming God Himself? Umapati says that if the T 
that becomes one with Grace through union ceases to exist 
but becomes Being itself disclosed by Grace, then it follows 
that its knowledge of itself which it gained vis - a - vis 
Grace* was delusion. This implies that the gain of libera- 
tion achieved by conquering bondage itself would be a 
delirio""* The soul in its state of bondage, cannot see 
itself. Umapati says that even in the state of release, if 
it could not intuit Being with the help of Grace which is 
accessible thiough nothing save itself, it is not possible 
for the soul to realize the wisdom which will enable it 
to reach the feet of God and consequently it will not 
attain the goal. Here the phrase 'Q^nrL.^!*) ^crfWir 
lfi> G^sfTfloTptonr asnrfiaOTp-fTu^gSr* emphasised the importance 
of Grace- We can realize Grace only with the help of 
Grace. M5nikkav#cagar says, 'Even the impulse to worship 
arises due to Him'- '^sueffr^e'/TnGsD ^GUWT&IT&T QjMrmj<$'. 
If one has achieved union with Grace and yet fails to 
understand what is communicated by it, the presumption 
can only be that such state of union was only a delusion- 

Umapati then speaks of the transcendental wakefulness 
(jagraniam) the highest state of conscionsness which can be 
attained even during the waking moments of one's life. He 



156 



says that the highest state can b3 attained not by eforts, 
but by renunciation of efforts- The sou! can achieve this 
state only by balancing as It were between the razor's 
edge of awareness withont falling on the side of discur- 
siveness which ensues as a result of association with the 
tattvas and without also sliding into ignorance which results 
due TO dissociation with the tattvas. The soul must avoid 
The two phases of bondage i.e., the state of kevala where 
there is no instruments and consequently no knowledge 
and the state of sakala where the soul has partial know- 
ledge which will not help to attain the feet of God- The 
soul must refrain from all actions and must stand stead- 
fastly united with Grace which is present as the condition 
in one's consciousness. The soul thus submits itself to the 
control of the highest wisdom and gives up its egoistic 
efforts, by identifying itself with the Supreme Being. When 
this conversion of attention takes place even in the soul's 
waking moments, then the sensory discursiveness and 
ignorance are conquered and the soul attains the highest 
state of consciousness even while it is awake- 

Explaining further, Umapathi says that the senses which 
are restricted to the service of enjoying the fruits of karma 
and earning fresh ones, will not by themselves cease to 
act. If it is said that the soul by rts own intelligence knows 
the way of subduing the senses, then also the senses cannot 
be subded, for then the intelligence of the soul will endure 
and egoism will be the result. If the V consciousness werer 
to disappear with the disappearance of the function of 
senses, then the soul wilf sink into ignorance- The only way 
of experiencing this highest state of pure consciousness is 
to remain in wakeful alertness without being subjected to 
the discursive knowledge of the senses but to be absorbed 
in the presence of the Light of Grace. When the instruments 
of knowledge help the soul to know the objects, the intelli- 
gence of the soul (atma eitsakti) concentrates on the objects 



157 

and knows them one by one. If tha atma citsakti fades in 
the Light of Grace, like a lamp before the sun, the soul will 
realize the Divine wisdom. When the soul refrains from 
following the lead of the senses, where in otherwords the 
Light within is allowed its sway over the senses, the soul 
may be said to have conquered the ignorance. It is only 
realizing the transcendental wakefulness (jagr&titam) that the 
one can get rid of the bewildering births- 26 

Umapati says that knowledge - absorption (jnana nista 
is a state of spiritual tranquillity. It is the culmination of 
hearing the words, meditating on them and attaining enligt- 
enment. Even after hearing the words and meditating on them, 
the jnana ntstQ does not ensue without a manifestation of the 
knowledge of God. (&ivajnana). God is beyond the sphere of 
word and meaning, beyond even the reflective self-conscious-: 
ness of the individual. So Get! cannot be attained either by 
hearing of the words alone or by meditating on the words. 
God's Grace must descend on the individual (*Vaz aru\ jn^nam 
nami) and there will be manifestation of Light of knowledge 
due to the descent of Grace. When there is manifestation of the 
Light of jnana due to the descent of Grace, the light of Pafu and 
Paia jnana fades (tecurum). With the help of this knowledge 
the scul conquers the finitude and it achieves a union with 
the all-pervasive knowledge of God Thus is achieved an 
ecstatic absorption in Divine knowledge- It is also a state 
of ecstatic love when the soul is aware of advaita union with 
God. The soul's three faculties of thinking, feeling and 
willing will function even in the state of release. The souj 
thinks of God's help even in the state of release and this 
love for God increases and thus the soul's faculty of willing 
functions. The soul enjoys fiva jnana and in this way 
the soul's faculty of feeling finds its consummation. 

The path consisting of hearing the words from the 
preceptor, contemplating, meditating and attaining enlight- 
enment is the straight one for achieving the goal of spiritual 



158 

tranquillity- Following his predecessors Umapati says that 
if this path is hard for one to tread, th n are oth-^r easier 
msans of attaining the goil. The soul mint constantly think 
of the limitations of the instruments that the soul uses and 
also the dependent nature of the soul- By this consciousness 
of dependence on the part of the soul and by growing stead- 
fastly in the felt conseiousness, one can have a lasting Jove, 
for God and attain the same goal of spiritual tranquillity 
Thus the intellectual method involving an ascent through a 
heirarchy of knowledge is not the only way of experiencing 
God, even though it may be the standard one. We can see the 
influence of the great Saiva devotees on Umapati. There is 
no conflict between the way of devotion and the way of know- 
ledge in Saiva Siddhanta- SekkiWs phrase *5' r6 * T " 3 ^^ Ufr ^ 
^esrCcLj GT err p GST ft <g> fr GST LD &_ em L_ n ft ' means that 

knowledge consists in loving God- 2t This is taught by 
Tirujnana Sambandhar who drank the milk of wisdom. Umapati 
Sivam considers 'sohambhavana' also as an alternative means 
to reach the goal of attaining 6iva- He says that tensions 
and conflicts that are native to the soul can be removed by 
the contemplative identification. He concludes that for those 
who have received the grace of the Lord, no meditation 
involving mind is necessary. 

Umapati adverts to the theme of advaita in the context 
explaining the sense of 'oneness 1 which occurs in jmna-nista. 
He appeals to one's experience of bondage and says that the 
nearest analogy for understanding the union of soul with God 
in freedom is its advaitic union with anava?* The Tamil word 
for 'one' is both noun and verb. It stands for the number 
one and also for the imperative be or become one. Umapati 
analyses the various shades of the sense implied by this 
word and expresses the sense of advaita as suggested by the 
proper use of the term 'one'. It is instructive to note that 
Meykandar uses the word 'onru' when he speaks about 
advaita Umapati explains in this verse also the precise sense 
in which the Saiva Siddhantin uses the term 'advaita'- H 



159 



says that if it is one that becomes two and later on becomes 
v oned', then no account is taken of uniting. If it is a case 
of two becoming one, it will imply tnat one of the two ceases 
to exist, as there is no other way of understanding things 
two in number coming to be one- 30 If however it be said 
that there is no becoming one at all, says Umapati, there is 
no question of uniting If the two are not uaited, then there 
is no union. If however the union of the two is explained 
jn the way in which iron becomes one with fire is explai- 
ned, then certain consequences follow- Among the two enti. 
ties the one should partake unreservedly of the nature of the 
other- As iron in fire acquires the full function of fire, so 
the soul in union with God should acquire all His powers 
and perform the cosmic functions* I his however is untenable. 
So the only adequate simi'e that suggests itself to understand 
the significance of this oneness is the same in which one 
has been 'one' with ignorance- Following Umapati, Ttfyuma- 
navar also describes the union of soul with anava in the 
same manner. 31 When the soul is one with ignorance what 
is implied is that it stands as ignorance itself and not as one 
which is affected by the impurity called mala. Anava mala 
obscures the intelligence of the soul in such a way that it is 
not even conscious of its individuality- It is like the eye en- 
shrouded in darkness where it is intelligible to say that it is 
indeed darkness. In the same manner the soul experiences the 
Supreme Being by being one with it- 

The question arises regarding the status of Pas, when the 
soul is liberated. The soul that is one with God, does not 
cease to exist in release. Sf p$$a endures with its finitizing 
function* there is no manifestation of Infinite knowledge- If 
P&fa is destroyed in the state of release, then it is not a reality. 
Umapati says that just as the destruction of the soul is incon- 
ceivable, the destruction of the reality of pasa is also 
inconceivable. 32 The eternal pzsa does not cease to exist 35 
What is destroyed, is its power- It may be recalled here that 



160 



Umapatl anticipated this difficulty and he defines pasa as one 
with energies that may ba withdrawn when they are matured. 31 
He uses the analogy of light in explaining the destruction of 
the energies of ^aJfa- Before light, darkness cannot exist- 
Darkness is neither destroyed nor does it persist in its function 
of veiling the eyes. In this way, the power of pasa is neither 
destroyed nor does it persist in its funtion of inhibiting the 
manifestation of soul's knowledge and action. 

Regarding the destruction of karma t Umapati says that 
the limitless stock of two - fold karma which gives rise to 
numerous births (saiicitd) becomes powerless like fried seed 
and ceases. The karma that has begun to lake effect in 
the from of present, body and its experience of joy and 
sorrow (pr&rabdha) does not operate in the normal way, 
as it does for others. The experiences of the embodied 
soul with his pleasure and pain are no longer the experi- 
ences of the liberated soul, for the experiences are unappro- 
priated by the liberated soul. These remain the experiences 
of the body before which the jtvan mukta is present as a 
spectator. The karma for future, which may arise out of 
present experiences (agami) is consequently destroyed by 
the fire of knowledge which resembles sunlight dispelling 
darkness/ 5 



PANCAKsARA AND RELEASE 

Even though the bonds may be dissolved, so long as the 
liberated sou! moves in the world of physical elements, i-e., 
as long as the soul is affected by prarabdha ka rma f the finite 
and discursive knowledge due to the taitvas rnay not cease 
to affect it. The prarabdha karma will have its course even 
though the jivan mukta \& fixed in wisdom. The difference 
between nvan mukta and other souls is that for the jivan 
^nukta the experiences are only the experiences of the body 
and the jivan mukta is a mere specator, while the others enjoy 
the experiences with desire and aversion and thus increase 
their stock of merit and demerit- By the force of his previous 
habits, he may go the way of the senses. Even as the smell of 
asafoetida remains in the vessel after it has been taken away, 
the residual bond (vasana mala} has lingering effects. Because 
of these lingering effects, it is quite possible that the soul 
may be affected by egoity (1 - sensej and with the coming 
of '1-sense', the primal karma (miHo vinai) in the form of 
desire and aversion may revive in its wake and the ^discursive 
knowledge due to the bond of mayeya may come back to 
the soul. The individual maybe led to discursive knowledge 
in this unexpected manner. 

In this context we may consider the view of Umapati 
Sivam regarding iruvinaioppu. The author of Cintanai ura^ 
gives two interpretations of iruvinaioppu and asks us to see 



162 

in the Mapadiyam of Sivajnana Munivar to get the real 
meaning of this concept. 1 According to the first, merit 
and demerit (pituya and p%,p<i) must become equal, without 
any of them becoming greater or less. The second holds that 
the effect of great punya, say, asvameda yaga and the effect of 
great Papa, say Brahmahatti cancel each other when they 
become mature- According to the second, iruvinaioppu occurs 
in this way after all merits and demerits are canceiled-Taking 
the first case, Sivaijraana Munivar says that it is difficult to 
have a state in which all merits and demerits have become 
exactly equal and even if by chance, we come to have that 
state, the effects of merit and demerit are not experienced 
by the soul. They cannot leave the soul, without being experi- 
enced by it. So the first version i$ not tenable. According to 
the second, even though great merit and demerit may cancel 
each other, the remaining merit and demerit are not cancelled 
and they have to bs experienced by the soul before it gets 
spirtual maturity. Sivajaan^ Munivar explains the true meaning 
of the term iruvinaioppu in the Mapadiyam. Iruvinaioppu 
refers to the particular state of the intelligence of the soul 
which is not affected either by merit or demerit (se&cita) or 
by their consequences- He refers to Sp 48 and says that 
the phrase 'edirvinaiyu mudivinai udavu payan ner&ga* (GT$IT 
etfevyesTiLj (Lpi^oS^sOT s_jS5^ uujsvT G?&(rnr,s) makes it nece- 
ssary that even the agamya karma must become equal with 
mudivinai i.e., &ivapuuya.* The becoming equal of the future 
tfgamya karma with mudivinai cannot be obtained except in 
one's intelligence. There is also another argument, supporting 
this interpretation; when the mark of mala parip&ka, baktini- 
pata and &va puny a are to be found in one's intelligence,, 
the mark of iruvinaioppu also must be found'in one's intelligence, 
Umapati Sivam explains this in Saivav'ddi nirakaranam in 
the Sanharpanirakbrcqam also. Umapati poses the question 
whether malaparipaka is the the cause of $aktinip^ta or vice 
versa- 3 If Saiva vad^ says that mala'parlpaka is the cause of 
Saktinipata, then he must say that molaparipaka will occur 



163 



at the end of appointed time after a long passage of time, of 
ft must occur in the appointed body at the end of taking 
many births according to karma. It may also be at the time 
when both merit and demerit cancel each other or to/hen the 
soul realizes that merit and demerit are causes of birth. 
Finally the occurrence of malapar'paka may take place when 
God ut of His mercy may save the soul- Un.apati Sivem 
says that it is difficult to measure karme which is devoid 
of form. In this context we may note four stages viz., &iva 
pvnya, iruvinaioppu r malaparip^ka and saktinip&ta. Due to 
the maturation of Swapuqya, iruvinaioppu occurs and due 
to the state of mala paripzka. saktimp&a, takes place- 

The descent of Grace consequent on the ripeness of 
mala is graded and admits of degrees, This is so in 
regard to the gradual and progressive ripening of mala. 
Umapati sdys that we can distinguish four stages viz , very 
slow, slow, fast and very fast, (manta tara r manta t t\vra 
and tjvra tar a).* Umapati Sivam says that for those who 
have reached the jz&nap&da j. e ., the souls of the highest 
grade wft are fit for the very fast descent of Grace, God 
appears as a preceptor- God who has been one with the 
consiousness of the individual as its inner light, 'appears 
directly in a visible form and imparts true knowledge. This 
knowledge removes the endless alternation between isola- 
tion (kevala) and empirical experience (sakala). it removes 
the bonds and paves the way for the pur& state of exis- 
tence- This state of pure existence is called &uddhav&stha 
The author of Cintanai urai says that the kevalavastha refer- 
red to here is the state that obtains with sakala and not 
the presaMa state of oneness with mal. The resson is 
to be found in that freedom from the second sense is to 
be achieved in the sakalavastha itself- 5 

Umapati deals with various goals (mukti) aimed at by 
different schools- Enjoying the pleasures of wcmea is con- 
sidered to be the highest goal by materialism. The 



164 



school considers the soul as an illusion which arises 
due to the aggregation of five skhandas. They are rftpa 
(form i.e., perception), Vedana (feeling), vijn%na( conscious- 
ness) samjna (cognition of things by their names) and 
samsk^ra (impressions) including accumulated merit and 
demerit, According to the Buddhists, the goal of spiritual 
freedom consists in annihilating the aggregates. The Jaina 
school regards mukti as a quiescent condition of the puri- 
fied soul- It is an escape from the body, though not from 
existence. The individual becomes devoid of character by 
avoiding all emotions- The $uddha state is not the cause 
or the effect of the sams&a series- It is absolutely uncon- 
ditional. Others conceive the goal as the dissolution of 
karma obtained through a due consideration of tha general 
and special characteristics of substances. This theory is 
viewed as the thery ot Vaisesikas by the author of Ci- 
tanai Urai (p. 804.). llakkanam Cidambaranadar considers 
this as the view of the Jainas and Madura! Sivaprakasar 
considers this as the view of the Prabhakara Mim%msa$a* 
The goal of spiritual freedom is viewed as freedom from bondage 
(mala). Ths is identified with arupa Sivasamav&da 
(Cintanai urai p. 804) and Bhedavada (llakanam Cidambaranada 
Munivar) and Pasupata Saiva (Madurai Sivaprakasar). Theschool 
of Siva sama v&da considers the immortality of body as release. 
The Sankhya considers the discrimination between puru$a and 
praJcrti as the goal of life. The mayav&da also considers discrimi- 
nation between Sat and asat as the means to release. The 
annihilation of the soul at the time of release is considered 
as mukti by the Bh&skara school. The attainment of powers 
(siddhis) and deadening of consciousness like a stone are 
viewed respectively as goals by the school of siddhar and 
Ny%ya Vaisesika. The author of Cintanai urai maintains that 
the deadening of consciousness is considered as the goal 
by the school of ^asana -vzda Saiva. All these goals are 
not worthy of our effort and are reprehensible- (tW P^er 
mutti SP. 50) What umapati means by the reprehensible 



165 



nature is that they are not goals of freedom, instead they 
lead men into the ocean of transmigration- All these goal 
are included either in the keval&vasth% O r in the sakafavasthd. 
But neither kevala nor sakala marks the ultimate freedom from 
which there is no return to sams%ra. True freedom can be had 
only in the life of pure state (suddh&vasth&). When the evil 
effects of wa/a are destroyed, then the Divine Grace which 
remains unmanifest till the dissolution of mala, manifests itself 
in the soul. With the help of this Divine will, the souf 
attains the feet of 6iva. e This is described as the suddhzd- 
vaita mtikti which consists in 1) overcoming of bondage and 
2) realization of supreme bliss, through union with Grace- 
These are treated respectively in the tenth and eleventh 
sutras of the Sivajnana Bodham and the Sivajn^na Siddhiyar* 
Umapati also discusses these two aspects in a.ru\uru nilai 
and inburu nilai in the Tiruvarutpayan. 

When the old habits which arise due to v%sana mala 
threaten to overcome the jivanmukta, he should fortify 
himself against the troubles and must not yield to the 
influence of vasana mala. Following Meykandar and Arul 
nandi Sivam, Umapati suggests mukti pancaksara as the anti- 
dote against this influence- It is the contemplation of God's 
name which has no beginning nor end. By pronouncing 
this mantra, the soul resolves to remain steadfastly in the 
manifestation of faana and in the consequent perception of 
Being. The mantra as duly instructed by the preceptor helps 
its user in preventing him from b3ing affected by the 
residual impressions of mala.' 1 

Of the five letters of Pancak?ara (&ivayanamaj. Si (#) 
tepresents God, va (u) His grace, ya (-*) the soul, na (j5) 
the screening power of God which involves waja and karma 
and ma (">) the original bond (mala)* it is instructive to 
note the position of the soul which is preceded and 
succeeded by other factors. ^Metaphysically and spiritually 
speaking, the soul occupies a middle position. Even though 
^ Cf. The Siddhantin's conception of sadasat. (PP. 56-58; 



166 

the soul is essentially a spiritual being, it has the capacity 
to identify itself with whatever it is associated. Even though 
the soul is aw^re of Go1 in the svkzlavasthz, it is not drawn 
towards Grace (^) due to the dragging effects of mala and 
tirodhayi. The sou! is caught in the ocean of transmigration 
of births and deaths. The mukti Pancaksara in which God 
and His grace precede and 0*to and tirodh&yi recede, will 
not be helpful to those who are carried away by the 
pleasures of the world. On the other hand, the mukti 
pancalcsara should be given to those who yearn for God as 
a consequence of transformation of avasth%$ from kevala-sakcta 
to 



Mukti P&nc&ksara (Sivaya nam) is also known as 
suhsma panc&ksara and N^ma^ivaya is called the tih&la 
Pancaksara. \/Ve have to note an important point here- It is 
not meant here that sthulj pahcdksaru j$ unimportant, what 
is meant is that we should be aware of the need for the 
transformation of kevala.sakala to guddha. Mfl/zikkavacagar 
begins the 'Tiruvacagam' by praising Namaslvaya.* Appar also 
says that Namzsivaya is the source of ji&na and worldly 
leanning. 10 We find many passages emphasising the importance 
of Namasivaya. We m,ay say that sthula p%&cak&ara paves 
the way for spiritual progress and sih&lu in this context 
means that which helps to know the inner 



Umapati enjoins the recital of mukti pancdksara thus : 
"pronounce the form in which the letters for God and Grace 
stand first; in which case the screening power will turn 
into Grace and destroy the potency of a/^ya'V 1 Then with 
the help of Grace, the soul will realize God- and become 
one with Him. By meditation and) contemplation, one is 
fixed in God. In this context we may consider Prof. 
S,S. Suryanarayana.Sastri's views on this aspect- After warning 
us against hasty generalization about Tamil genius, he asks, 
'May we theft conclude that the emphasis on the practical 
vaguely indicated in Meykandsr and Arul nandi and forcefully 



167 

developed by Sivajnana Yogin is a characteristic of the Tamil 
genius and contributes to Saiva doctrine?' and concluded 
that 'in so far as Saivism appealed to the characteristically 
Tamil genius, it had a more practical turn than in other 
cases, and adopted doctrines like that of jnana-karma 
samuccaya'. 12 He compares the commentary of Sivagra Yogin 
'for the Sivajnana Bodham with that of Sivajnana Yogin. 
Sivagra Yogin says that actions mentioned in the twelfth 
sstra are descriptions of the devotee who follows the path 
of service (dasa marga) and this may not relate to the 
jivan mukta. He again says that even if this passage may 
be taken to relate the jjvan mukta, actions mentioned in 
the twelfth satra are descriptions pertaining to him and not 
prescriptions. This is rejected by Sivajnana Yogin on the 
basis of injunctive words like worship (^<a5"cy?) which occurs 
in Meykandar's elaboration of the &utra. it is to be noted 
that only descriptive words (cwQesrssrcs Q^rr^Qu^) are used 
jn sutra itself. The professor remarks that Meykandar and 
Aru/nandi have not left us any book in Sanskrit, while 
Umapati Sivam left works in both Sanskrit and Tamil. If 
the Sanskrit tradition be presumed to be antogonistic to the 
laying down of injunctions for the jivan mukia, then we 
may expect a trace in Umapati's writings- In Tiruvarutpayan 
there is no mention of prohibitions pertaining to the jivan 
muUu. But there is an explicit description of the jivan mukia, 
his illimitable bliss, his immeasurable compassion, his non- 
cognition of worldly things and his freedom from aversion 
and attachment. While Meykandar and Arulnandi deal with 
the treatment of pancaksara in the nineth sutra, Umapati 
explains pa&caksara after the tenth sutra. Sivajnana Ycgin 
says that though Umapati may not have written explicity 
about the prescriptions for the jivan mukta t his treatment 
of panczlcsara lends support to the view that it is a prescription. 
He argues that in the phrase '^tfrf 1 m<si!<s$i&& 
*{r<iff>jS fi^^ijut^ ^0=fP,s6 CT*frrfD^ the word 
refers to the state of jivan mukta after the three bond 3 
are destroyed. 18 



168 

It is instructive to consider Maraimalai adigai's treat- 
ment of Panc&ksara. Ha deals with citi suksma Paftc&ksara, 
besides sthula and suksma pancaksara. in atisuk$mapanc&k$ara t 
we have to leave out the two letters naC/s) and ma(^) which 
stand for tirodhana and mala and concentrate on Sivaya Siva 
(ffieutLj&Gu). He quotes the Tirumandiram verse which says that 
if we meditate on Sivaya nama through concentration of the 
mind, then bliss occurs after the transformation of tirodh&na 
into aru/ sakti. 14 

If the soul is liberated from the bond of karma, then it 
will not take on bodies- The instruments of ^a^ are given by 
God so that the souls may experience the fruits of pervious 
karma and if kurma j$ destroyed, then there is no necessity 
for taking on bodies. The author of Cintanai urai says that 
liberation from karma takes place in three ways. 15 By the 
application of \ndna and kriija $akti of the preceptor, agamy at 
and sancita are destroyed, prarabdha "karma is destroyed by 
being experienced by the soul. When thus mfiyb and karma are 
destroyed, !mpurity (anava) is dispelled. The state of union 
with Grace leads the soul into the bliss of ojva. Madura! 
Sivaprakflsar says that the liberation from karma is possible 
through three kinds of knowledge viz., knowledge pertaining 
to the soul, knowledge pertaining to karma, and knowledge 
pertaining to God. 16 The disciple knows that he has no 
independent knowledge and karma is unconscious- So Siva must 
be understood as uniting the two in order that the soul may 
experience karma, fhe disciple must learn the lesson that 

since all actions are ordained by Siva, he must rise above 
desire and aversion. If he does so, then Grace helps him to 
see Siva. When Grace helps the disciple, he must know the 
source of Grace i.e-, &iva* Even the consciousness of realiz- 
ation i.e., being aware of such experience should be viewed 
as the manifestation of bliss and bliss is the very nature of God. 
Thus the goal of unmediated and uninterrupted sleep (tungu- 
dal) occurs and the disciple is in advaitic union with God 
after the destruction of the evil effects of bonds- The JJvan 



169 

mukta who is devoid of imperfections, is fixed in Siva and 
he will remember God's help even in the state of release, 
Umapatl uses the term 'tonmayil' which implies that Grace is 
one with the soul beginninglessly. It is interesting to note that 
Manikkavacagar also talks about tonmaikkolam. 1T Umapati 
refers to the accomplished character of scul's experience of 
Siva. 18 He implies that it is a state of ecstatic love. !f we 
long for that experience, the longing itself paves the way 
for attaining that experience* In release the cognitive, active 
and conative functions of the soul as spirit are exercised, 
but they are not exercised in the same way as they were 
exercised in empirical life. The cognitive functions are not 
exercised toward space, time, quarters, yogic seats, doctrines, 
seat, qualify, excellence and name. Likewise their conative 
faculties are not exercised to ward fasts, rules of conduct, penance, 
uttering prayers or mystic words, meditations and so forth. 
The faculties of jlvan mukia are focussed only on Being. He 
is asleep to all other things and is sensitive to Being only. 
All other things ere like things in the hands of People who 
are asleep 1!> In Tiruvarutpayan also Umapati uses the same 
simile to express the idea/ 20 

Such experience is neither like the external worship of 
God nor even like the internal worship of the Yogin and is 
completely unlike anything pertaining to this world. The state 
of knowledge with its subsequent revelation of Being is on a 
higher level than that of carya, kriya t and yoga, Carya, kriya 
and yoga are species of worship and are practised eithe r 
internally or externally. What is sought after in all these three 
modes of worship is Being that transcends the structure of 
experience- Umapati explains in Vina venba (11) that what 
the soul experience in bondage is the world and what it 
experiences in release is Siva. In both cases if the three 
factors viz , knower, the one who shows (Siva) and the 
object known are not united, then there is no experience- It 
is comparable to the situation where the soul, its tongue and 



170 

the sweet honey wen not related, then there is no experiencing 
of tasting honey. If these were related and then if, any one 
of the factors were removed or destroyed in their union, then 
also there is no experience of tasting honey- The three fac- 
tors of knower, the one who shows and the object known must 
be related in such a way that none of them are destroyed in 
their union. 21 

The worship of knowledge implies worship without the 
presumption of subject-object distinction. Therefore know- 
ledge is qualitatively superior to the three modes viz, caryz, 
kriys. and yoga. Such worshipper who rs fixed in knowledge 
lives and moves among the ordinary souls and even keeps 
company and participates with them- Even though the jlvan 
muJcta mixes with ordinary souls, he is superior to them 
because of his broad outlook resulting from his knowledge. 
The jivan mukta mixes with the ordinary souls in order to 
help them- But just because he mixes with them, we must not 
fail to note his superior nature. The jivan mukta may be 
described as being truly above law. Because the cognitive 
and conative faculties of the jjvan mukta are not affected by 
the discursive knowledge, he neither has to obey commands, 
because it is right or prescribed for one's benefit, nor abstain 
from them for opposite reasons- He has the all pervasive 
knowledge- The implication is that since he has all-pervasive 
knowledge* he will not do any harm to others, instead he 
helps them to achieve this all-pervasive knowledge. The 
analogy used by Umapati in this context is the man of the 
world under the spell of tamoguna (tamomayamay sp.95). The 
worldly man lives in a state of ignorance and his discriminatory 
power does not work. He goes the way of the senses, surren- 
dering without let or hindrance to the drift of events. The man 
of spiritual wisdom also behaves spontaneously, but in a 
different way. He is spontaneously inhibited from distraction 
in his cognitive and practical life. He is guided by Being 
perceived by him as Divine Light and he is firmly established in 



171 

Its all-pervasiveness- Since the jivan mukta is guided by Siva, 
he has no sorrow, but only a uniform experience of Being- 

From this one should not come to ths conclusion that 
/na/itf is discontinuous with the preceding states of worship 
and meditation. We can also view the states of worship and 
meditation as moments of knowledge itself. In a sense the claim 
is ture that jn&ni alone has the right of competence for 
other modes of worship. 22 He is the devotee, doer of actions 
par eacellence, and yogi par excel leance- Umapati follows 
Meykandar in emphasising that the jivan mukta's functions 
spread in the direction of yoga, kriya and caryz making 
them all alike merfey moments of the experience of jfiatf*. 
The element of 6ther gives room for all things within 
its sphere and permeates them ail in their vefy 
being. Similarly God's grace permeates and comprehends 
all things. If things am seen in therir proper light 
under which they shine, it is conceivable that one can 
achieve in this process realization of oneself as identical 
wrth God- The author of Cintanai urai says that at this 
stage, the jivan mukia must realize that Siva is his sotij 
and he is the body of Siva. In this way the /Iran- mukta 
should regain the highest state of realization if he slips 
from it* 

Where the jo&ni performs rites and worship; his attaining 
/fiaflfl will be perceptible even in his rites and worship. The 
tafcvas fnora earth upward should be looked upon as nothing 
in themselves except as energised by Divine Q.rac6. In this way 
what is seen and the subject that sees them, are perceived 
as aspects of grace- In addition, if the meaning of the holy five 
fetters (Panc&ksara) in the God-ward form in which 'Si' 
and W come first be meditated upon, the omnipresence 
of God be realized and He may be worshipped as such, 
The Jn&ni's rites and worship are thus based on the awareness 
of grace's omnipresence. Likewise in respect of outward 
worship also-, the Jn&ni shows the same spontaneity. 



172 

Umapati says thit those who drink the nectar of Divine 
Bliss arising from the ocean of Divine Wisdom, look upon 
the devotees and the holy images worshipped by the devotees 
as identical with Supreme Being unreachable even by the 
gods. The realized Jnani Is also the exemplary devotee who 
lovingly worships the Lord with tears of joy and lisping 
tongue* 

Regarding the Jnani's right of competence for other three 
modes of worship, we may consider skki|ar's view. In 
Candesvara nayanar pttranam, SekkUar says that candes- 
varar attained jn&na due to his previous good deeds. 28 Candes- 
varar realizes that the essence of limitless sciences is the 
feet of dancing Nataraja- 24 Though he had the highest 
wisdom, he could not bear the sight of the cows being 
beaten by the cowherd. He took charge of that work and 
due to his careful protection of the cows, the cows yielded 
more milk- From this it is clear that the jnani out of 
compassion for souls and other sub-human beings, does 
things by being one among them so that they may follow 
him. Even though he acts like this, he is always fixed in 
God. The devotee's love of God should find expression in 
his love of all beings, because He lives in all of them- 
A nineteenth century saint Ramalinga Swami, brought up in 
the Saivhe tradition sings, 'The deeds of all those who 
treat all living beings alike and help them are deeds of 
Divine grace'- Umapati Sivam also says that jnani out of 
the depths of his love, is troubled and tossed about for 
the sorrows of his erring mankind. 25 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 

INTRODUCTION 

1. There is archaelogica! evidence to show that five thousand 
years age, Siva worship was known in the Indus Valley. Vide 
Mohenjodaro, Preface VII; The scripts of the Indus Valley Seals 
p. 25 as quoted by Prof. Ramanujacari's Saiva Siddhanta. pJ 

2. ' Our English peopje a must have the means of attaining 
some insight into the living system which exercises at the 
present day such a marvellous power over the great minds of 
the great majority of the best Tamil people. 

For, under some form or other, Saivism is the real 
religion of the South of India, and of North ceyfon; and the 
Saiva Siddhanta philosphy has and deserves to have far 
more influence than any other-' 

G U- Pope. The Tiruvacagam Oxford clarendon Press, 
1900. Preface !X. 

3. Ibid. 

4. Prof- S-S Suryanarayana Sastri The Philosophy of Saivism , 
cultural heritage of India Vol. U t p. 35. 

5. '/60(oiD63P 



Ainkuru nuru translated by G. Subramanya pillai in 
his Introduction and history of Saiva Siddhanta published 
by the Annamalai University, 1948- p. 1. 

6. Schomerus- Siddhanta Dipika Vol jV, p. 11 article on^uta 
Samhita quoted in 'Saiva Siddhanta' by Paranjothi p. 4- 

7. Tirumular says : 'The Vedas and the Agamas are true 
revealed by the highest Know that the one is general and the 
other special. Both are revelations of God- When one says that 
a difference exists, know that for the great, no difference 
exists'. 



Q&orurr QutPQiuiriTa 

"TirumQndlram 2358 



Qutrgi 

^ti) 

-&ivajnana Siddhiyar Subakkam SJS 



174 



cf. also- 

'sLea 
fieasy 



, PeriyapwaWm, 820. Puplrshed by thi 
Saiva Sfddhanta Maha Samajam, 1950. p 371. 
9. Mr. Aru:n,achal-am thinks that catamaniklcovoi was written 
by Marai jnsma Sambandhar- He builds his theory on the basis 
of a verse from jnana dikkai timviruttam beginning with 

'(SjScffr U9<2JU> ' 



He argues That since catamanikkovai comes between 
sivajn&rra Bodham, SivajRzna Siddhiyar on the one hand, and 
Umapati's Tevara aruimurai titattu on the other, catamani&kovai 
must have been the work of Marai jnana Sambandhar- 

M. Arunachalam f Tamil llakkiya varala^u- 14th century -1969- 
P.P 139. 140. 

10. Pofji pahrodai couplet 70 

11. Porri pahrodai venb& and Nenjuvidu iudu couplet 84 

12. Porripahrodai 

13. Porripahro 

14. Sankarpa 

15. Rajendra pura manmyam, mentioned in the preface to 
^ivaprakasam with Engliah translation by K. Subramanya 
Pillai* published by The Dharmapura ^4hinam. 

P. 1 945. P. 1 1 . 

16. 



Tayumanavar Gurumarabin vanakkam 6 g 

17. 



Nenju vidu tudu 8990. 

1 8 * * ________ . _____ Q&issir esff !& 

L^esy & a] w Q/zii/jQttresr/Jj/rssr 



20. 



Nenju vidu tfidu 91-92. 
. cf. for e&oteric rnterpretatron of flage hoisting p,11- 



M. Arunachalam, Tamil llakkiya varalaru 14th century 
1969, p. 144, 



175 



Qu/r/o 

Sankarpanirk&ranam 26-28. 



22- *!$&>$ & & &r&* ivapraSiSam 91. 

-&ivaprak&sam 7. 



-Ponpahrodai 
Saiva vadi nir&Jcaranar line 36. 

28. 



Nefiju il du ludu couplet 24. 
Tirukkuraf 348 



idu tMu couple: 25. 
26 Dr. Ponniah, Theory of knowledge of Saiva Siddhanta, 
published by the Annamalai University 1962 p- 37. 

27- Umapati follows the lead given by Sekkilar in explaining 
the categories of Siddhanta also. 



-Tiruvarutpayan 53. 



29, 



Sivajnana Siddhiyar 8,15. 

30* South Indian Inscriptions- Vol I* qupted in Saiva Siddhanta 
'by' Prof. Ramanujacari, Published by the Annamalai 
University /*. ^. 

81. '^AOT i&Gp&gff ^(^sfr, (/5iflifl 0/T65>tt/ 



Tiruvarutpayan 52. 



176 



32 The outermost s-hools. 

1) Lokayata 2) Yogwara 3) M&dhyamika 4) Sautr%nti1ta 
5) Vaikbh&sika and 6) Jainism* 

These schools do not accept either the Vedas or the 

Saivzgamas. 

The outer schools 

1) NyRya 2) Mjmamsa 3) Ek&tmQV%da 4) Sankhya 
5) Yoga and #) P^ncarcttr^, 

These schools accept only the Vedas. 
This is not strictly true, fof the Pancar&tra has faith in 
its own set of Agam%$. 
The Inner schools 

1) PQSU paia 2) Mdh& vrata 3) Kdpala 4) V%ma t 5) 
Bhairava and 6) Aikya vada. 

These accept both the Vedas and Agamas. At the same 
time* they recognize other human works which criticise 
Vedas. and Agamas. 

The innermost schools : 

1) P%$dna v&da Saiva. 2) Bhedavada Saiva 3) Sivasa~ 
mav%da 4) Sivcrsankranta vada Saiva 5) Isvara aikya 
vada saiva and 6) Sivadvaita Saiva, 



a//r/f 



35* It rs not certain if this commentator rs identical with the 
fourth of the Tamil santanac&ryas, Hultzsch in (^. 55M, Report 
on the search for Sanskrit Manuscripts II p. 18-) considers the 
identity probable. The editor of pauskara bh&sya definitely 
identifies the two- Umapati and Schomerus too followed 
the tradition (D-C-S. p- 28) as mentioned by Suryanarayana 
Sastri- (The collected papers of Prof- Suryanarayana Sastri 
D- 386) 



177 



Quart! 



Q&n&ieufr 



pp. 9 - 



Qu<sirL.&ir&, 



ggUJULHrL.lQ.6Sr 



6U(ipjiTQu)6srug[r&.tb, 

Q&IT&&, suesr&nw, 



Map'ddyam pp f 362 - 
37' prof. P. Thi>ujn5na Sambandham 5*2/vtt Siddhanta Vol.1 

No. 2. p. 143. 
38. Sivaprakasam, translated by K- Subramania PiliaL published 

by the Dftarmapura Adinam* preface. 



39. 



40. 



41, 



42. 



euif npreorr&tb* 



Tolkappiyam. 



Nanr.ul Sutras 7 & 8. 



12- 



Gutrpw 



178 



43. Madurai Sivaprakasar's commentary p. 78, 113, 226* 

44* 



Qiussr 

L/ni_^/r60/rdP/Puj/f -gi& 



Sivajnana Yogins commentary (eirrurai) on Si 
Bodham 9.3.1. 

45- 'gireSffitiGtfeb &$.& ^/^sb ^-^gsfsi)' 

Swamin^tha Desikar's Dasakaryam 



CHAPTER I 

NOTES AND REFERENCES 



i Sivaprakasar's commentary published by the Saiva 

Siddhanta MahaSamajam 1940. p 54. 

2. Madurai Sivaprakasar's commentary p. 280 cf. also Cintanai 
urai p 840. published by the Saiva Siddharta Maha 
Samfljam. Meykandar also uses the word Tarparam to 
denote God in two places, 

QrDssrfissr 



^0)65)60 ^563?' SB 3 1 1 



SB 9 2.1 

3. 



Quiuir 

Swamigal's commentary on the Sivajnana 

Siddhiya* 21. 
4- 'The Phrase' 



is such that it can also be interpreted in the following way. 
The t Vedas and Afjamas deal with the three concepts of 
Pati, Pasu and p^a explicitly. The other sciences also deal 
with these concepts implicitly though not explicitly .This 
implies that other sciences are not complete in themselves- 
They have to be supplemented by the Vedas and Agamas. in 
Siddliiy&r also we have the same phrase* 



& ILUJ til A&T 



Sivajnana yogin writes* 



. 

Sivajnana yogin's commentary on Sivajfana Siddhiy%r 8 22, 
R. 'u ^u(rG(D f Sivaorakasam- The phrase has to be arranged in 



180 

and V used in this sense, stands for exclusion '( 
and conclusion. ($&&?)&) 
6. Cintanai urai f p. 748, 

7- Madurai Sivaprakasr takes the phrase '*&&$* 

to mean that God is above the reach of the perverted- 
Cintanai urai takes this way that i. e., without God, no 
work is possible either for the intelligent soul or for the 
non - intel 1 igent worl d- 



Cintanai urai p- 748. 

Q. a^or anlyam - Smaller than the small* smaller than the 
minute atom. When the self is thought of as physical 
principle, its smallness is emphasised. In the same 
upanisad (II 2. 3.) it is said to be 'the dwarf and it is 
described as 'thump-sized'. In these cases, the old animistic 
language is used- When it is thought of as cosmic, its 
vastness is emphasised. In Chandogya upanisad 111- 14-3 
it is said to be greater than the ^arth, greater than the 
sky, greater than all these worlds- 

cf. Dionysius, De div nom IX 2-3. 'Now God is called great 
in His peculiar Greatness which giveth of itself to all things 
that are great and is poured upon all magnitude from outside 
and stretches far beyond it. The greatness is infinite, without 
quantity and without number/ 

It is also instructive to remember 



Karuvur Devar r Tiruvisaippa. 

Published by the Saiva Siddhanta Maha Samfljam 1939- p- 153- 

9. Sivajnana Bodham II sutra 

10. Sivajn&na Siddhiyar 1 50 

11. $ uyir&&$ $& $&&rr ^irsur fiGnro^tfanuj&r 

Sivaprakasam. 14. 

12. l iSQuip /^p^ IUQD6U Qturr&<&}i& > 

Sivaprakasam. 14. 

13. Sivajnana Siddkiyar 167 translated by J,M. Nallasamy 
Filial- cf- also- 



181 



& 7 rr & rr LL rnu 



Kandar Kalaivenha. 

14. Taittiriya upanisad (ij 5) also Iholds, 

His head is surely love; py, His right wing, delight His 
left; Bliss is His self, Brahman whereupon He rests"- 

15. Slvajnana Siddhiyar 1-43 44, 
cf- also. 



rm. Tambandhar. 

1 6sf 65) /D 61/637 <ST 65T Q <D (Lp $ c55 3> IT L. Q L. ff @%) 

Appar Tevaram 

16. si^^^sff^rnS 1 g)<mfi!@[!9&Grr65r$ ff^^iLtrtu 

Si rap rjk&sam 13. 

17. ftiii&g,] (C)Q/T/D HgJ &i-?bg> $ tu ) $ esr rr e^ LD 

Sivaprak&sQ'm*. 15 

18. ^P(i/)<6fr /pQjrrto$r!r}! LB)frnu)tun$)i& 

Siv&prakasarn. 16 t 

19. $r <6frib@$&&J LD6sr<jj)lu9rr& &&8f>iJbuS l 6sr 

NakkTrar Tirwnug&rrupadai 

20. 



Sivaprakasam. 15. 

21- In this connection we may refer SP 29- In this verse, 
for the phrase 'rs&rr^LDQiun ^SWLD^C^ ($& : g>$Tj}i&@ 
the author of Cimanai urai says that God knows the 
pleasure and pain of the individual without attachment, 
apportions thess to the individual and so He ir> not 
affected by the experiences of the individual even though 
He knows them. Madurai Sivaprak^sar takes this phrase 
to mean that the soul ia affected by pleasure and pain. 

22. $rgj/ sransi/ti/m <&iis/r l &$Gv6sr fiwecxssr girGssr 

Sivaprakasam- 15. 

The expression 'Tdnru' (standing) means standing inse- 
parably (Cintanai urai p* 751). 'Nintu', may also mean 
standing unchangably i-e-, without Himself subject to 
any change- Madurai Sivaprakasar, p. 81. 
23- 'Nimalari literally means the Taintless, the taint being 
the defilement of unfreedom. 

24. a~ a) & Q L&so /Til) e^ffl/G ty&&$ p6srQ@&ripi 

Sivaprapasam. 16, 



Sivajnano Bodham 1. 



182 



Sivajn&na Siddhiy^r 1J,, 

The txpr ssi^n he* she and it were used by Meykandar* 
Following fVUykandar, Arulnandi and Umapati Sivanr? 
paraphrase in the above way. Meykandar's original and 
th^ paraphrases have the decided advantage over the 
Sanskrit expressian 'Strlpum hapumslcadi' which merely 
mean male, fermle and neuter The Tamil expressions 
indicate the g Anders (of human beings) and serve as the 
d monstrative also. 



Siva jfana JBodJia Varilfiiltfim Sutra 1. 

25. $ ar $); & & L> & stir ,r ob ?_ 3 w & n^u:> 

Sivaprak&sam 16. 

26. Madurai Sivaprakasar takes the word 'Praptnca' to include 
human souls and their embodiment- He quotes 'Taitva 
Vilalham (QY 

rT n 7;IflS^ UIT& Lb($ # &W thl <S>L.4XiruiT @ff&W QffSSf $ ( [T ) 6$)l&u9&} 
8> wi/ IU LDL. Ml (g) Q IL '(tit Qi GOBI @)/ 

Madurai Sivaprak^sar's Commentary p. 62. 

27. " $$ Q&iJif") $Stsrsy&>piff0b ^^sffSssnLj^&j&jirih 

Sivaprakasarn 31. 



28. Madurai Sivaprakasar argues that to explain ^c^^^' as 
orgination- '(*u/n>-u#r as destruction and 'Q^^fiu^j' as 
protection is not correct beoause the meaning has already 
been conveyed by the words 'jBttrgi ^Gfretf} ep(j} /HJ^LD' 
in the same verse. Hence the fault of repetition will occur- 
He also maintains that the word 4 c9/|sp*6]fr f ^ denotes 
the souls and cannot mean atoms. He cites the 'Tiruneri 
Viiakkam' which follows and explains Swaprakasam 
closely In Tirumnn\<*kkam we find 'CJu/r^ <y>@eun$i5&i 
Qua<5jB&nr6&>Lctuffg)/ua for <^u6fr a_c$ c^^s>( tqo> 
f 9t$GS t &>nentJc>vun$piib (SP16) Madurai Sivaprakasar rein- 
forces his view by quoting c9/53>LO(u/r jgcmsoonu 
xj*a>a fTattva vijakkam 12) and 



(&ivajnana Siddhiyar 1.66) |t is regretted that 
Tirunerivilakkam has been lost. This work would have 
been helpful in understanding the meaning of Sivaprakaaam 
29. <tpjatf^J <jpj&jD-6>j6fi Parimela/agar. Introduction to 
the first chapt-r of Tirukkural. 



4 a 



Sivaprakasavn, 
cf- also- 



183 

31. 



lU $ GST tD GgXpffiT (Lp g, j$I & LJ U/T <$ UJ/T <5<t 

ssrprriT $},$ a//t 7 ^nu^sfffujQeuiresffsssrir 

5>6t>^(pLfi,T/rfl",T 3f <51/ |p/ ^ 6$ <3D SlfT Q/ ( ID /T ? IT /T 

Siwjuana Siddhiy&r J.49. 
37.- 'Sivaj nana Mdp&diyam p p 63-64. 



esr U/TSI//B 

Tiruccadakam, Tiruv^cogam. 

b. 



Sambandhar. Thirnmudukunram 1. 

C. ' eu iP ILJ ri LU LDeoyrrsj)] nuuuib&6$rn68r 
(tpsfr ,05^5/0 &rij&f l 



Tirujnana Sambandhar, TirukJcanil-9. 

d. LD/rsmsi/ ujiflgjg&sfr Q ds/r SSSTI^KI & 



Sundarar Tevaram, Tirukk&napper-? . 



Tirvjn&na Sambandhar, Tiruveiukurnukkai 6, 

<$i $ iu FT g, Q&GuQ&susisr Gff^ih ,Q urrtf sb&m 



Tiruccad again 30 Tiruv&cagam. 

g. 



Kuirpattu 5 t Ti 

h. 



Tirukkayilciya ju&navula 9 t 
... tufr^wifftutr swencsQuj/a/aaffj/f u/f**(jsrr 

Ponvan&attandadi 96 



Tiruvacagam. 
35. Nicol Macnicol, Indian theism, p. 174. 



184 

36 'A favourite epithet is the black throated one' This epithel 
suggests to the devotees the grace of Siva. The devotees 
meditate on this epithet and praise and worship Him. The 
account of Tiruneelakandar reveals to us the greatness wirt 
which the epithet is honoured by the devotees of Siva 
The account of Siva drinking poison shows siva's con 
cern for the souls and the devotee constantly remind* 
himself of the black throat as the act of His Grace- 
Indian Theism pp. 174-175. 

37. V.S Chengalvaraya pillai. 



quoted b' 

Dr.VA- Devesenap^thi. Of human bondage and divine grau 
Annamalai University publications, 1963p.27 



Sivapr ak^sam 77. 



77. 

40. Explanation of this concept (advaita) pp. (118-121). 

41. ggnt&eoti u/r/r@5 &ir>&&eb 

Gurreo c^,^o> 
urb$Giu 



f. 112. 
cf- Also Lokzvattu Llla Kawalyam Brahma sfitras 2J.3. 

42. 



Tirukkurai 339. 

44- According to Saiva Siddhanta the native existence of th 
spul (tannuKmai SP 51) is not being infinite spirit bu 
soul in beginningless association with the evil of ignoi 
ance. In S0^arpmirfc&afr* m- Umapaiti systematicall 
refutes the views of the soul which regard it as in essenc 
underfiled spirit. 

45, d}/r/D/DJb ubeouir&u) a/^r 

Sivaprakasam 18. 



185 



47. According to Marai Jnana Desikar, a commentator on the 
Sivajnzna Siddhiyar, tirobhava does not hinder the soul, 
but it hinders the hindrance to the soul. We must 
clearly understand the function of tirobbava. We must not 
think that God first brings about obscuration and then 
removes it. 

48. Qff&'sffuu&r efion ear $!&*&>& 6uihui& 



Santalinga Swamigal, V<aira&ya Satakam 

i$ ^pt^sDaaieaBrifl ^dB^g/aio 
6ZD6u urb$& &.$& $60& 
ssr. tyn(_$/r< ^ ffi ft tu h 



QUIT & 

}w&&&sarw QuirgiefftuebLj er & gy w, 
a./fo/ Jj60<s<ss<sarifc <$FDui9uj6bLf ffrfifrpifl, st&rsnsu 



50. ^r^/A^dW/r^Lb (ST^^ Qtoirtpujrrgpiib 
(J<y/r^4 (5swarL./r &L-/t<sfftlr 
/r^f .**[/) jjtii&w SLflpisfffr wesrth 
gir H$ GI> (&($ uu ea^ 

Tirujnana Sambandhar, 



52- Sankara, Brahma sutra bha$y<* IV , i, 75 qusted in 

Preceptors vf Advaita Ed. T-M.P. Mahadevan, published 
by Sri Kanchi Kamakot! Sankara Mandir, Secunderabedp 

lQ68.p.469. 



335. 

54. <s/D/D$r/rsu QtuuiueSr' tfeSrQ&iteb satrs&fffsuGff 

TiruJckural 2. 



186 



56- Sivagra yogin speaks of three kinds of nayana dik$%: 

1) Srngara Just as a yogic person who has achieved identity 
with garudd heals the person bitten by snake, the prece- 
ptor hea!s the disciple by his kind look- Nigrahavdo- 
kona is done by the preceptor to remove identification with 
POSH by his identification with intelligence- lAnugrthava- 
lokana j s performed for the satisfcation of soul- 

57- Maraijnana Desikar a commentator on ^ivajnana Siddhiy&r 
says that wh^n ignorance leaves the soul, the eight 
qualities ar^ made manifest so that ^ivajndna may be 
intuited wmiout distinctions of knbwer, object known 
and the process of knowing. It may- be here noted that 
when anava is removed its seven qualities are removed 
and the eight qualities of God are manifested in the soul- 

58. / 



cf- also 



^y^sw/rsb ^ssr^ssrff ^/D/DJ^SV 9^/5^; (S 3- fr /B ^/ 

84. 



Siddhiyzr 9.1, 

59". 



Tiruvandappagudi t Tiruvacagam. 
60. Sivaprakasam. 23. 

61- The author of Cintanai urai says that the importance of 
may& given by the Lord is explained in tne unm'inl part 
cf. p- 78*. 

62. 



Uyir unuipp&ttu 4 f Tiruvacagam* 

63. tfl-ff)L/rj>Lr ^/^TDSS Qznstssr 



&dar N imhi, Vin\yaJcir tirJvirxttvi 
64. 



Sivaprakzsam 69* 

65- Ibid 

66- Sivaneriprakftsam. 63, 64, 65 & 66- 



NOTES AND REFERENCES 

CHAPTER II 

i. 



Sivajnana Siddhzy&r 9-7- 



In the beginning the soul wrongly identifies itself 
with the material world- After the soul comes to realize 
that it is an intelligent Being, it makes another wrong 
identification by taking itself tor the Infinite Spirit- The 
true nature of the soul is that though it is intelligent ft 
is dependent on the intelligence of God- Thus it is 
different from both the material world and from God- 



50- 



The preceptor says that thp three entitles Patf, 
and pas a are existe t even in the state of realease- The 
soul enjoys the bliss of Siva through the agency of Impurity 
(ma!am) activated by Lord Siva in the released state* 
Since the Impurity exists even in the state of release, 
it goes without saying that it is real in the fettered state. 



_ 

Quoted by ^ V-&* Devesenapathi, 

*of human bondage <J*id Divine Grace'. Annamalai Univer- 

sity publications 1963 P. 46* 

4. It ts interesting to find that J-M- Nallasami Pilli deals 
with the concept from the psychological and the biologicla 
points of view. J-M. Nallasami Pillai, studies in Satva 
Siddhanty, Mryk&ndar Press 191 1,#- 317- He quotes the 
proverb. Youth and white paper take all impressions'. He 
also gives examples from biology as to how' persons 
associated with pags, get p^ggy faces, and with horses 
horsy faces etc'' 

5. $)&$uJ)iJ?r) fir 



Tirukkun&i 46.2* 

6. 



fayumanavar - Bnmtkanni, Nirku nilai 28* Published 
by Tirnppanandal Math, 1963'P*211 



[88 

7 ''Pur^/ja mithey.va na s^chu sarvam, na capi kavyam 
navami thyavadydiru cantah parikSyanyatarat bhajante, 
nwah para pratyayaneya buddhi", KcJida$a, 
MalviJcagni mitra with the English translation by SankarQ 
Rama Sastri Ba'amawrama Press t Mylap&re, p<3. (1955) 

8. 



Tiruvarutpayan 11. 

9- By the h=!p of inner light that shines as knowledge withim 
knowledg ., thanks to the timely intervention and help of 
the teacher, who is none other than God Himself, the 
soul eventually dispies the darkness of impurity and 
accomplishes or achieves union with the Divine feet. 
&6GTn <fc ^tyGtr &>$ SP 19)- Cintdnai 

i says that '&itffey*&' <&$eurrtu' literally means 
knowledge within knowledge- This may be taken to mean 
the knowledge (Patijn&na) which is the source of all- 

knowledge during embodied existence- Attaining that 
knowledge is liberation- And that knowledge though 
present is of no use in the kevala State- This knowledge 
being the source of knowledge has been mentioned 

by others also- 'urr&(tprb$tL'.SP 

kandar Kalive&ba 

Arul.iandi Sivam also describes mukii as 
GP^^. 'Adiceral' is symbolic of dissolution of all bonds^ 
and this itself is further consummated in the experience 
of Divine bliss- 
10. Anava, Karma and ^ajva are explained under the tittle 

11. 

The author of Cintani urai says that kuri (<&$) denotes 
desire, following SivajnSna Yogin's commentary on- 
Sivajuana Siddhiy^r (4-38)- Another reason ,is that the 
word 'kuri' is juxtaposed with the word (kofadt] which 
are the instrument- for the presence of desire- 
12. The five kinds of kevala, Ciritanar urai (p- 781.) 

18, t $ii&$5sri[($60 



Q LI gjQ <S> ft (3 

34* 



189 



Si ar Q sii ssr p un 

58-59- 



Tiruvarutpayan 51. 
14- Umapati uses the causative verb (u^artti SP 36) meaning 
that the false understanding of the universe as everlasting 
is caused by Impurity, cf - also- S0TO#>5CT>rr#00eb co 

vifakkam 50. 



15. 

Sivapraka^om 37. 

16. Umapati uses the same illustration with regard to 
suddhftvastha also, but with a different emphasis. In the 
sjlcalavasha, the Impurity is awaiting the opportunity of the 
absence of light to spread its influence- In the suddhav&tha 
the soul is enjoying the bliss of Siva, which is like the 
presence of light in space where light cannot be dominated 
by darkness. 

17. The speech is the general determinant of experience. It is 
a general unconditioned factor necessary for experience, 
irrespective of the condition of the quality of the fini.tude 
of the individual souls and is brought, out by Aru/unandi 
who states it negatively thus. 



@/r sff iB ssr /o',t 

Sivajnana Siddhiyar 1-26. 



S/v a prukasam 38. 
iiiujtrgji 
Siddhiyar 1,21. 



18. 

Sivaprak^sam 39. 

The importance of kdttum and kujfum upah&ram has been 
emphasised by Aru/nandi, 



Irupa irupahdu 20- 
anfl Siddhiyar 5-1* 

ssro^i/ 

Bodham 11 tt 



190 

Cirrambalan'ldigaf also emphasises the importance of God's 
knowing in our knowing the objects. 



19. Regarding adh^a sudd hi f Madurai SJvaprak^sar says that 
we must destory the hide-out of snake, If we want to 
drive it out In the same way if we want to free the soul 
from the adhvas we must occasion the destruction of 
adhvas thr ugh the preceptor- When this happens* the 
soul reaches the arul f sakti of God. 

Madurai Sivaprakasar's commentary p. 42. The sou? 
is supported either by woya in the fettered condition or 
by Siva's grace in the state of release. In reflecting the 
environment i.e., as supported by the instruments of ma \ a 
it is not true to itself. When these instruments of may a 
are destroyed by the preceptor, the soul comes to be 
supported by Siva's grace which is the true support of 
the soul. 

20. The Cintanai urai splits the verse in order to get this 
meaning in this way- 



(Cintanai urai p. 783)- 

21- Manikkavacagar also points this out when he says that he 
has been immersed in the countless determinations* 



Tiruvacagam* 
22. 



Siva rakasam 43. 

23. T.P. Meenakshisundaram, Agamic tattvas and conception of 
Mind. This is an article included in ''Essays in Philosophy"' 
(jan'esh & Co* t Madras, 1962. 

24. Tiruva//uvar also uses the analogy of the bird breaking 
through its nest. 



34, 



191 

According to the cintanai urai these three examples are 
illustrative of the change of the causal, subtle and gross 
bodies. Cimanai urai p. 797. Some scholars maintain that 
these three are illustrative of transformation of the body, 
place and intelligence, 

25, It is also necessay to note that Nircrnbavajsgitfr ecccunts 
for the 84 hundred thousand variations in another way 

thus : 



25 hundred thousands 
Sweat-born 10 
Seed- born 19 ,* " 

Placenta-born 30 ,'' " 



_ ^ 

Maraijnana Desikar, another commentator on Siddhiyar 
says that souls begin their career as plants and go through 
progressive births as instcts, birds, animals etc., and 
finally as human beings. 

We are reminded of following lines of Tiruv^cagem : 

LJ606CHT&U 



Quiurruj 



> - 26*29^ 

S6. 



99* 

27. Umapati's word for this trascendent knowledge is 
'Q^/T6rwniD &$ij' as distinguished from mere ' 
Manikkavacagar also speaks of 'G)jS^57r)LD65 G?noic f 

^-TirukkonumU 18- 

28, ^^PsiJ ^ 
Q UIT (f^&r &r 

29. 



-Vina venba 1, see commentary by Natnaccivaya Tambifah 



192 

80. g&s^c*^ t^^^-s^ QiLFTssrQ j)jL.Lh 66ar/ry 



81. smw&r & ear Qu tree 

ssnt <s/aD6/ 

Tiruvarutpdyan 55. 



82, 

(*i//rai wesrfitfLb jjjuy, 

-Tintvarulpayam 19. 

33 Here we must know the fact that when we say that s/,? 
need not know asat, it does not mean that a&at ceasesis 
to exist before sat. Asat exists like lamp in day light- 
it is necessary for the soul to distinguish Sat from a* * in 
order that it may be free from usat. This necessity does 
not exist for God. The nature of the soul is to know objects 
one by one in succession. The infinite may see ail things 
with a glance and may not be forced to see things one 
by one as is the case with the individual soul- The 
necessity of seeing things one by one in succession does 
not exist for God. Meykandar says that everything becomes 
like non-existent before sat- 



Bodham 7th Stitra. 

3t- fiolct Paranjothi, Saiva Siddhanta, (London Luzac & Co ^ 
1938) p. 150. 

35- Schomerus, Der Saiva Siddhanta pp- 204-205- Quoted 
in Saiva Siddhanta by Paranjothi- p- 150* 

36* V*A. Devasenapathi, Saiva Siddhanta p*2l6 

We may consider two verses of Tirumantiram which 
indicate that the soul's essential nature is intelligence 
and its obscuration is caused by impurity- 



quoted by J)r. Devesenapathi. Suiva Siddhanta p. 216 



193 



37- Cidhmbaranada Munivar takes the phrase 'or s^ttu' as an 
elliptical compound in which a verbal root forms the 
first component- (?flnrjsS)jsirCT>) We can find the usage 
in Tirukkura/ (35-7J 

6p $$6$) so tutu 



cf; Sivajhana Swamigal's commentary on 



Sivdjnano Sictdliiy&r 1. 

The comrientator also says that the term '6 >*' may also 
denote intelligence, as can be known from the commentary 
'cfFjS^rfejSLQ' in the work called 'y^c&^suLb' 

The meaning of 'g)frg5cb r is to consider attentively' 
examine, investigate and that of '@n&&Go' is to select* 
choose- 
Tamil Lexicon V ol I part II p. 626- 

38- Sankarpa Nir&karanam, Nimittak^rana vada Sankarpcm 

63-^68. 

39. Here the author of Cintanai urai makes an important 
distinction- The light that is mentioned here does not 
refer to partial illumination through accessories of know- 
ledge (p- 814)- The latter are also called light but as 
mediation agents like moon in relation to sun- Most of 
the commentators of Sivaprakasam have confused between 
the two- 

40- Umapati Sivam sums up the forty verses of siddhiyar 
subakkam (191 to 230) in this verse 0-e- SP 59)- 

41. QurrtfltflGsrfff ^aJrptb t/63Wr/r<a LJ&$&<&) 
Quif /5ir/D/D 

Tiruvarutpayan 15. 



42. 

Sivaprakasam 78 m 
and the commentary of cintanai urai. 

43. The way in which God helps the soul may be compared 
to the way in which the teacher helps the students in 
the class* The teacher works out the problem on the 
black board first and this may be compared with 'the 



194 



stands by the student and helps him to work out the 
problem for himself so that he does not commit mistakes. 

44. 



Ulugud'ji N&yanar Kaiinedil, cited in Mapadiyam. /?. 313 

45. The author of Cintanai urai says that the three internal 
organs mentioned in the dream state do not include 
mind, because cina f the enquiring faculty of mind 
functions in the state of sleep itself. Therefore according 
to him the three internal organs are guna, buddhi and 
ahankara. He also says that these five states occur in 
the kevala stale itself and the use of these states is 
that the soul gets intelligence in these five states with 
the subtle body (suksma sarira] in the body (stWla sarira). 

46. ^(SJ^/r/D/rw & ( tf}<sS ! &T IL^S^LD gjirGosr 

Sivaprakasam 60 t cinianai urai p. 818. 

The anatomical location of these centres is a difficult 
problem and there are various theories about them- 
However no one theory is supported or verified by 
science. 

47. Turlyatita is a state of the soul. Objects must be there 
even in turiyatita, even though the soul may not be 
aware of them. Madurai Sivaprakasar explains this by 
giving the example of body and soul. When we say 
that the soul exists (obviously in samsara or the embodied 
states), we mean that body and soul exist together- In 
the same way when we say that purusa js alone in 
Muladhara, it means that prtkrti exists along with 
purusa, even though the purusa may not be aware of it 

48. 



Sivaprakasam. 63. 

GQig>n& 

Cirrambala nddigai, K attaiaikkalitturai 37, 



49, 



195 

50. The kevala represents the svarupa laksana o f pasa and 
eakala the tatastha laksana. In the terminology of post- 
Umapati literature svarupa laksana is called svarupam or 
rupam and tatastha laksana j s called gun&. 

51. The fact that the intelligence, desire and action of the 
individual are influenced by those of God, is emphasised 
in the following passages. 



Tirumaligaiftevar, Tiruvisaippa, Koil Padigam. 

52. a 



^63Jr65P6b cSV $ UJ IT gtf 

Sivajn&na Siddhiyar 5-4. 
53. dntanai urai pp. 825-826. 

$&&&) ^s/resr/rcSBdP sffQeuesr 

Unmai neri vifakkdm 6. 



67. 
c.f-, also SivajnanaBodham 5.1 and Sivajnana Siddhiyar 231 

56. 



Sivajnana Bodham 8th sutra, 

T^IW 

Sivaprakasam 67. 



CHAPTER III 

NOTES AND REFERENCES 



. 7. 

The idea that Saiva Siddhanta is the essence of 
Vedanta is also emphasised by Kumara gurupara Munivar 
who compares the Vedas to a tree and says that 
Saiva Siddhanta gets the essence of the fruit of the 
tree of the Vedas. 

2. $6D6y G}rT3>mu&rr$...G<su&$g6$>60 ^^Qunr^sfrinii 

Sivaprakasaw. 99. 



s.^iuLft> 



Kumara gurupara Munivar t Pandora M ummanikkov ai t 
lines 23.35, published by the Tiruppanandal Mutt with 
the notes of U V. Swaminatha Ayyer, 1961. (p.440), 

There is another verse which compares the Vedas 
to a cow, the Agamas to the milk the songs of the 
Tevaram teachers to the ghee churned from milk and 
the virility of Meykandar's work to the taste of the 
ghee- 

L/<gf ttygtssrurreb Qtuuujin&tLLb ; 
nj gy Q/piu - 

T Gl Sll 65ST Q 6S8TUJ 

Quoted by Arunalvadivel Mudaliar. 
Siddhanta iejmyo/, published by the Dharmapura 
1968, p. 33. 

Cf. K- Vajiravelu mudaliar^ 
Lectures on Saivd S\ddh&ntj, (published by the Annamalai 



197 



*. We invite the attention of the scholars to the uses of 
the word in "AdvMam 1 listed by Iwara Murthi Filial, 
published by The Tiruvavadnturai Adhinam 1969. (p-4). 
According to Isvara Murthi Piilai, Pantanjaii gives six 
meanings to the prefix 'Na' which is also called 'Nanj'. 
Isvara Murthi Pillai writes : 

'! The first meaning is tat sadrsjam which means 'equal 
to that'- The example for this 'that which is not the 
horse - 'anasvam' (tf^TST^JT) i.e., which is like horse but 
not horse i.e., zebra. 

2. Abhava i.e., non-existence is the second meaning. 
Qjrftgob manuskzh spj 1 ^ : TT^T is the example which 
means that man does not have horns. 

3- The third meaning is tadanyattvam (tTS^c^^T) as in 



h bhuh ( 3FTT3FT$T:^ : ) which means that earth 
is different from akasa. 

4. Tadalpata (cR^T^r) is the fourth use, meaning 'deficiency" 

asinAnudara kjnya 3TJ^RT sfran} the girl who has a 
small stomach. 

5. The fifth is aprasastytitn (srsnTr^cTTJ, non - existence of 
largencess as in 'amara deva' (STTTTT^^T} i.e., thecele- 

stials have no death i.e., like the human beings they are not 
affected by sufferings like death- 

6- Virodha (fsncteTI) is the sixth meaning as in apunyam which 

is the opposite of puny<* i-e-, Papa. 

We must consider the three important meanings for the 
present i.e., sadrsya, abh&va and virodha. There are four kinds 
of abh&vas i.e. atyantabhava r pragabhava t pradvams^bliava 
and anyony&bhava. Pr&gabhava or antecedent non-fxistence is 
the non-existence of a thing before its production, Pradvam- 
szbhava is the non-existence of a thing on account of its 
destruction after production. Atyanfabhava or absolute non- 
existence is the absence of a connection between two things 



198 

of colour in air. It is thus different from pr&gabhava and 
pradvamskbhava. Pr^g abhava is the non-existence of a thing 
before its production. Pradvams&bhava j s the non-existence 
of a thing after its destruction. But atyant&bhava j s the 
non-existence of a thing not in any particular time, but for 
all time. So it is subject neither to origin nor to dest- 
ruction i e., it is both beginningless and endless, (anadi and 
ananta). When one thing is different from another, they 
mutually exclude each other and there is non-existence of 
either as the other- 'A table is different from a chair' is 
the example. This means that a table does not exist as a 
chair, or more simply, a table is not a chair. If we take 
all four kinds of abhava, then we have nine kinds of meaning 
for the Prefix 'Na'. Pragabhavj and pradvams&bhava are not 
important. The last meaning i.e*, anyony&bhava is included in the 
meaning of tadanyatvam. The remaining meaning of abhava is 
atyantabhava. So we can conclude that Patanjali must have 
taken atyantabhava under the term abhava. When we mean 
abhava jn general, we mean only Myantftbhava. 
5. M .Hiriyanna, the essentials of Indian philosophy f (p.178j 

'Visistantar bhava eva ailcyam', &ri~bh%$ya of Ramanuja 

with sitirapralcasika, Sutras 1-4. page 132. 



.6337" 63) 10 ($61), c9/ ^5 / 6$ < Q IL 6ST /D 



Sivajanna Bodliam - Second sutra, second adhikarnana 
Vartjkam* 

7. If there is only one entity, there is no need for it to 
refer itself as one- The fact that there is mention of 
one, implies that there are more than one entities. The 
negative prefix 'na' will have only sadrsya meaning 
when it is used in connection with numerals. 

Mapadiyam 'Sivajn5na Muniver' p. 114. Cf. also 
K.M- Balasubramaniam, Special lectures on Saiva Siddhanta, 
Published by the AnharHalai University* (p.36) 

8. L//D# ffubiug&isufr&S^tsrrrTtij <&&& 

ffUbUJgi QglTStfuJITUJ 

Sivaprak&sam? '. 



!99 



9. It is interesting to note in this connection that 

Sambandhar criticises the Buddhists and Jainas in 
every decad of verses (except of a few). He also says 
that even Buddhism and Jainism were created by Lord 
Siva- From this it is clear that Sambandhar did not 
criticise the good principles of Buddhism and Jainism 
but he opposed the evil ways in which the good 
principles of religion were practised- 

Tirujn&na Sambavdhw-TiruirumbuluiP^digom p.Q$4 
Tevaram, Talamu-rai Tiruppanandal Mu't. (1958) 
10- The Siddhantin says that human beings have to pass 
through numberous births before they are born as Saiva 
Siddhantins- They resort to the outer faiths, the inner 
faiths, the smrtis, asrama dharmas penances; they study 
the several sciences, Vedas, puranas f upanisads before 
they become Siddhantins- Even as Siddhantins they 
have to pass through the stages of carya. kriy& and 
yoga before they attain jn&na whereby they reach Siva. 
So it is clear that salvation is worked out by stages, 
not all at once 

Sivajn&na Siddhiy&r Subakkam 8-11, 
It is interesting to find that jnanaprak^sar, one of the 
commentators of Siddhiy#r takes a catholic view. He says 
that though for supreme release, Saiva Siddhanta is nece- 
ssary, the followers of other faiths also can achieve this end, 
because release depends on the ripening of mala which is an 
essential condition. The temporal sequence relating to faiths, 
is not condition of release, (quoted in 'Saiva Siddhanta 9 
V'A. Devesenapathi p. 246.) 

11. Sivaprakasam 12 

12. mi&6sr&GSir(ffUiT6 

UJITtLGff <Z6WT 3>! 

Tiruvaru\payan t 19. 

f3. Sivajn&na Siddhiyar subakkam 8-15. 

14. Sekkif^r's Periyapuranam deals with the life of devotees- 
We have, in the Periyapuranam devotees of various types, 
of both sexes of all ages, of different walks of life and 



200 



of all castes. Some of them did the humanlv impos-ibie 
for the love of the Lord. Others dedicated their lives and 
avocations to the service of the Lord- Whatever they thought, 
said or did was with full awareness of the Lord. The 
golden thread that binds these different persons as 
members of one graat community is their unswerving 
devotion to the Lord- 

15. 'Lj&iSb c gy<olTDiSi/< &ffl<SU(t" > 

S'ivaprQJcasct>m 7* 

Here Madurai Sivaprakasar takes the phrase (pugd 
aiavaik lca\avagi) and interprets that Saiva Siddhanta is 
vindicated by pram&na* which are praised by all- 

16. 



Sivaprak^sarn-J. 

17. 



Sankarpa Nirakaranam, Nimit;ak&rana parinama 
Nir&karanam 9-12. 

& 6ST 8ft ID 1$ 6ff 



Sankarpa Nir&karaRam, Nimittak&ranQ 
Nirakaranam 55-57. 



19. Mzpzdiyam, Sivajn&na Munivar, p. 119. 

20- The defects of Bhedabheda view are clearly given as 
follows- "Bhed&bheda is logically and chronologically mid- 
way between the philosophies of Sankara and Ramanuja 
and mediates between the two systems by pointing out 
the subjective dangers of the one; and the anthropomorphic 
accretions of the other Both Sankara and Ramanuja agree 
in refuting Bhed&bheda as a philosphy of self-contradi- 
cations and Ramanuja rightly rejects it on the additional 
ground that it attributes imperfections to the Absolute 
and not to the confusions of the 'karma ridden jTva 



201 

(Srinivasa Varadacari & Co. Madras 1934) p. 330, quoted 
in The Relevance of Suiva Siddh^nta philosophy" 
N- Murugesa Mudaliar p. 83. 

21. 



-SivajSana Bodham 12.4.1- 
22- Madurai Sivaprakasar takes only the first two relations 

i.e., body-soul and eys sight and sunlight 

Madurai Sivaprakasar's commentary p-29. 

He takes the word 'arivu' **n$<sy 'jn the phrase* 
to mean the soul. He says that this indicates 
the inseparrbility of body and sou! in knowing a thing 
and that of eye and sun in seeing a thing. Sivajnana 
Munivar in his Mapadiyam (p. 121) mentions this interpretation 
and refutes it by giving two reasons- Umapati Sivam gives 
a new set of three analogies in answer to the old set of 
three analogies and the commentary of Madurai Sivaprakasar 
goes against the sense conveyed by the order of words 
(Q&irrD&t_*cn&) incidentally this gives a clue to the 
temporal priority of the commentary of Madurai Sivaprakasar, 
since Sivajnana Munivar refutes this interpretation even 
though he does not mention the commentator by name- 

23, 



24- When we utter a word, we are reminded of tfye object 
denoted by the word- But when we see the object, 
the word and the object are (in a sense) different, - 
fin a sense) one and yet two (again in a sense). 
Madurai Sivaprakasdr's Commentary p. 28 
25, The Svetasvatara Upanisad, IV. Q.Ed Swami Tyagis&nanda f 

Sri Rmamakrishna Math Publications, 1964; P. 85-86- 
26- The thirteen principal upani$ads. Ed. REflume, .oxford 
.University Press P- 403. 

27 The hymns of the Rg Veda, translated with popular 
Commentary. Ed* T-H- Griffith, VoU, Published by 
E.J. Lazarus and co- Third edition, 1920- 



202 



28- Sveta$vaiara upunisad IV 5 and 7. 

29. Kadavu/ Vtfzlhu, Tirukkura/ 5. 

30. Tirumandlram, 1969, Ed. Ramanada Pillaiand Tudisaikkizarr 
The Saiva Siddhanta works.publishing society* p- 775. 

31- Tirumular compares the life of the individud! soul to the 
river bank- Meykandar also uses the same analogy. 
'drai ceyya ninra cezhum punalin uilQm' 

Sivujnana Bodham 8.4.1. 

32, Tirumandiram 2366 ed- Ramanatha Pillai and Tudisaikkizar- 
The Saiva Siddhanta works publishing Society Vol II, 
p- 961- (1969). 

33. Tiruman&irttw. 159, Ed- Ramanatha Pillai and Tudisaikki- 
zar* The Saiva Siddhanta works publishing society Vol- 
I-P- 70. 1969^ 

34- Tirukkurul \ . 

35 Tirukkural Parimelaiagar's commentary Edited with notes 
W-M- Gopalakrishnamacari Triplicane, 1949, p. 6- 

36- Consonant-A\phabet\ca\ element other than vowel; sound- 
that in forming a syllable is combined with vowel 
Vowel . Each of the more open sounds uttered in speaking, 
sound capable of forming a syllable? (opposite to, but not 
sharply divided from consonant). 

The Concise Oxford dictionary of current English. 

37- J.M- Nallasami Pillai, ''Bowels and consonants" - in ''studies 
in Saiva Siddhanta" published at the Meykandan press 
p. 60. 1911. 

38- We may explain this by comparing the first vowel *A'to 
God, other vowels to souls and consonants to matter. 
The other vowels and consonants get their syllable only 
due to the first vowel- In the same way souls and matter 
get their meaningful existence due to God only- 

It is instructive to note the Tolkappiyam verse- 



For Tolkappiyar, the movement of consonant is possible 
not because of a vowel in general, but because of the 
vowel 'A'^ 



203 

39- M%pHdiyam - (pp. 372 - 373). 

40. The Brahma Sutra Ed- Radhakrishnan p. 77. 

41. Tiruvarutpayan 74 Translation by Rev. G. U. Pope, The 
clarendon Press, Oxford, p-vii(1900). 

42. 



r, Gurumarabin Vauakkam 4 / 

43- There is also another suddhadvaita of Vallalbacarya 
(later part of the 15lh century). Vallabha called his 
system iuddhadvaita as distinct from that of Sankara 
which Vallabha regarded impure because of the doctrine 
of wa.ya. Vallabha holds, 'Brahman and jiva are real. 
The knower of Brahman is absorbed in Aksara Brahman 
and not in Purusotiama. |f knowledge is associated 
with devotion, the seeker is absorbed in Purusottatna"- 
The Brahma Sutra Ed- S. Radhakrishnan. p. 92- 

44. Regarding the ultimate existence of more than one 
entity, we may consider the following kuraL 

Qurr^&r ^ebGOGurbanpu QUIT^&T ffrssr^ssur^w 
ID (/5r ir ssr irtb uoirosstnu i^put/ 

Tirukkurel 351 

Birth lacking in excellence occurs because of the 
delusion of attaching importance to things which lack it. 
Here the word used is (alia) '<&tieo r and the meaning is, 
of the two things before us, say a copy of kuraf and a 
copy of Sivajnana Bodham, if one mistakes one book for 
the other, ttys would be delusion or ignorance. Here 
the existence of two books is not denied. But if the words 
used were 'Quirerr @6boj />*>>' instead of '^urr^crr 
^ifc6D6u/D*/D' then the meaning would be altogether altered 
and it would mean, there being no copy of kural before 
us at all, we fancy there is a copy of Kural before us. In 
the former case, the reality of the two objects is not ques- 
tioned, while in the latter the reality of the object presen- 
ted before us is denied. 
45- '<&ffneu<3uj pnGesr uj/ruj 1 Sivajnzna Bodham second Sutra. 



204 

<saCa6ffTiurruj' and emphasises the toge- 
therness aspect of God's help- The commentator takes 
his c'ue to split like this from Sivaj&zna Siddhiyar II. 
1 which says 'a_i)Q6\)/TLDrr^ Ccsx/p/ruJ SL_L-pi>fnj\ This 
fact is emphasised by Tirujnana sambandhar. '&&*& 
<ip<S6b 66<5r#)'Ttr Tirujnana Sambandhar f TiruvJii miialai- 
paddigam. Tirukfaiiirrippadiysr which is earlier, than 
Sivajnana Bodham says, 



{jj <$ & & GST prrefr 

86- 



Edited with notes, M- Arunacalam, published by SaJva 
Siddhanta Maha Samajam. 1962, pp. 87-88. 

46- See for explanation of this sadasat aspect (in chapter If-) 

47- Tayumanavar Nirkunilai, 28 - Ennatkcnini. 
4s avaiyaddkkam, Sivajuana Bodham. 

4S The classification of grace into c^/pnb, toflDto fs based on> 
the explanatory notes on Tiruvacagam by Arunai vadivel 
Mudaliar. Tiruvacagam. Edited with notes by Arunai 
V3idvel Mudaliar published by Dharmapura Adhinams 
1966. p. 11- 

50. LjrDg,&[rtT&<g)ff (*ffQtun-<ssrrr}6$r L^w&tpw&m Qeu&)&* 

Sivapuranam r Tiruvacagam. V 

51. *<&t(ff > ff)g)i8s>@wr6inuj...Quff{7& ^irQsfr&^eofrw i^ypsi//? /35/r(c6Tr* 

Appar Tevaram, Cidambaram Padigam. 

52- Eij-th Tirumarai Edited with notes, Arunai Vadivef 
Mudaliar. Published by the Dharmapura Adhinam 1966* 
p-11. 

53- Sivajnana Bodham 8, 4 r 3- 
54. 



/S'/D/DSU u/pff? cSVifi ^eBT/D^^iij Qu/r^/Qj/ra* a./uJu(5 k /x)/r<s&6C/r6' c 

p. 373. 



55. <y63)O)6&_6$/D Q&esrrQj 

Sivajnana Bodham 8 4* 1 

58, ^frewcS^^fisr a//rgyib iLQS3rtb$@sr ILGSST^W Qurreb' 

Tugalaru Bodham 57. 



205 

57. ussiJSDGsa iLjw 6))<5Fa/ic Quirecu 



Sivajnana Bodham 2-1-3* 

58. jtfyi&p (!/) Guir) 

Tugataru Bodham 36- 

59. jgj(/5tbsftt/<as 65/rj5^5ii <svs&&&n'r[) 'QuireS'Gnujibgi 

Sivajnzna Siddhiyar 11~12- 

60- We can realize the importance of this analogy when we 
know that Sivajnana Munivar frequently uses this in his 
MapMiyam to explain the Siddhanta view of advaita- 
He says that the first adhikarana of the second sutra 
explains the second set of analogies used by Umapati 
Sivanv 



Qurr^b 

ff LD UJ 



SL GMT fir $,$uj sung)] &TI ossr A"* 

Mapadiyarn p. 119. and he gives the full verse of 
ivaprctk%s3>m 7- 

2, 'Qu/r/DusEsPCcLj/rsb ^dL/^^th, j^QGnQGuofiQunGb 

($u&(t.pib, QffiTnbQuirty'SffGlLjrreo G>u&rTG>u,,dpi&mLtTir)}Lk 

ty on p & & rr & 

p- 120- 



Q <su rf) ny eft LD u 

S OT Li 5j/ 



tu' eresr^i gLL-LbQurrfa Lj&srfr&gj 

Mapadiyam p. 373> 

4. 



sQysff /$/DL/, (ZptSsebsugj/iJb ^ssriLrrsffesr dwd/sw/r/p/ 



(iP .35 eb Siy ear 



206 



, ^<J65)<y, QffUJ) 



Mapadiyamp. 467- 

5. 



>. 493. 

Commenting on the Siddhiyar (Second sutra first 
verse)* Sivajnana Munivar says : 



O-L.ebs.u9fr, 



CHAPTER IV 

NOTES AND REFERENCES 



LD FT 6S) IU 0] W 



Nandi upadesappadalam> Thamgai 



3. u 

4. 6jLD/rcLj 



L/53)_ 

un&ih 



5. 

6. utsvonrfu 



7. 



NannuL Q. 

Sivaprakasam 13. 
Sivaprakasam 20 

Tiruvarutpayan 22. 

Sivaprakasam 20- 



cf- also- 



Tiruvarutpayan 25. 



32 



u rr &!&<$, srr ^ipes 



TattvaViiaklcam 19. 



8. 

ff$$uj$mu 

Sivaprak&sam 20. 
8- Madurai Sivaprak^sar quotes the line 

rriT ( 



10. 



Sivajfiana Siddhiy&r (g.1) 

Here the world is realized to be 0s0* not ontologically 
but axiologically. 
cf. also. 



Bodham Qth sutra* 



208 



The Tamil word 'Harul' which rhymes with 'irul' and 

and' brings out tha positive sense of delusive darkness which 

deludes without even creating a suspicion of its presence- The 

author of Cintanai urai explains by giving quotations from 

Appar and Tiruvalluvar. 



Appar 4. 76- 1- 
The expression 'ava' is also used both as a synonym of 
'MaruV and also more often as one of the consequences 
- 



arising from it- 

ejebeorr .u9if& l & > Lh sr 



Tirukkurai 361. 
Tiruvacagam. 



Tirukkurai 35. 

In this two-fold usage Tamil word '# v a' corresponds to 
the senses in which the word 'moha' in Sanskrit is used- 

11. <sp(tT) 



23- 

12. 



Tattva viiakkam 20- 
Sivaprakasam 20 a 



14. 

^^D^5 <oS l 6S)(S(r<s8 > &&&) ID60IC 

U&mai vjijalckam 50, 



15. 

0/Tfii*/T 

20. 



Madurar Sivaprak^sar quotes the line 
QunueuGnGrrj&Gvr u/Tj 

from Tiruvembavai, Tiruvacagam. 



16. 



209 

ivi ^ ,uc 

explains the Siva tattvas. 



17. Madurai Sitfaprakaiar quotes these verses w'isn he 
he Sim tattvas. 



Sivajnana Siddhii/ar 1. 65- 



.m. 



vil :k 

18. 



n&r.a Siddhiyar 1. 46. 



21 

cf- also. iSafva Siddhanta, Dr. Devssenapathi p* 139 for a 
clear, exposition of the realm of speech. 

19 u;5<sii> GufT&ib ($utr& $i$$@ji& 

Gil^^gtl WfTGfolU S^6W63T LD6Uii> &>?!>$(B& 

lines 78-8, Jn&ntnrd'&m 51 . 

20. In the phrase, <jpror/jssij gj^^m^^^ajrr^ /5rT6wr@a) 
Madurai Sivaprak^sar takes '"^' to suggest that all other 
things necessary for the partially released souls, also are 
evolved from the suddha maya, He quotes these verses 
in support of his view- 



/P/T6U 

sir Gl 

Koyil puranam 231- 



210 

21. LDsy/jO/ru!/ iLssristti l u9(j)& ^pGsr&Gtrn'S} iLrrstnuj 



Sivaprakfisam 22. 

22- Writers after Umapati distinguish the causal and the 
effect forms of maya as the difference between its sub- 
stantive (0wnz) and its attributive form (g u nam). 

23. Sivajnzna Siddhiy&r 2. 53- Sivajnana Yogin's commentary 
for detail. 
Cf. also. Saiva Siddhznta Dr. Devesenapathi p. 143-144- 

24- Madurai Sivaprakflsar in his commentary on the verse 
beginning with 'uruvadi* (which deals with the asuddha 
may a) says that the souls have (k&rana m%y&) as their 
resting locus and when they come again, they come with 
the evolutes of karya maya. He deals with the question 
whether anava itself is sufficient when the souls have 
their rest at the time of destruction of the world* He 
considers these sayings* 



~Sivajn%na Siddhiyar 4 .38 

Sivaprakasam 33. 

These imply that apart from anuva t there is 
nothing with the soul in the state of kevala. The 
commentator says that just as the verdigris conceals the 
actual colour of the copper and wood veils the fire, anava 
mala obstructs completely the intelligence of the soul in 
the kev*la state. Now the question arises whether the 
obstruction of intelligence by mala itself may form the 
support of the soul in the kevala state- Umapati says that 
though anava veils, it may not be , the support for the 
soul in the kevala state and for the sake of support we 
need kara^a maya besides a&'iva for the soul in the 
kevala state. He further says that in the analogy of copper 
and verdigris, when we melt the copper obstructed by 
verdigris, the copper is supported by the support like the 
earth. This is the case with the analogy of wood and fire 
also. In the same way when the soul is in the sleep 
state, all instruments are obstructed by anava and the soul 



211 



is supported by the body, the product of may a- Madurai 
Sivaprakasar quotes the following passages in support of 
his argument. 



Sivajnana Bodham 3 A 
Siddhiyar 4.32. 



Irupairupahdu 9. 

He also gives another reason to support his view. The 
Kevala state, veiled by anava t is followed by the sakala 
state, through the operation of tattvas beginning with kola. 
Yhe effect can come only from its ceuse. In this way 
since the operation of tctivos beginning with Atf/a is found 
in the sakala state, the cause of these ra/jvas i. e. barana 
maya must necessarily be found in the kevula state. 
Madurai Sivaprakasar says that the tattv&s begining with 
kala are produced from rnayd in the kevala state and quo- 
tes these passages. 



Tirumandiram 21 68 

r^ G&ireargiw 

Sivajnana, Siddhiyar 2-54 



-Sivajnana Siddhiyar 4-21. 

He raises another question whether there is anything 
apart from anavfl for the vijS&nakatas. He says that the 
vijnanahalas reside in the (karana) suddfia rnaya and they 
live with the help of the instruments which are mads of 
Suddha mays, until the time of liberation, 

He quotes the following passages ; 



212 



Siddhiyar 1-25 

srifff) flpsnintr 
*&i QJ si! $n & ($ >JLJ 

lt IT 8T> tU ILj 



Tattvapratcasam, 

The commentator infers from the Ta/wa Prak^nm text 
t the vijn&t akclas have rirodhayi and suddha maya apart 
n anava . Thus Madura! Sivaprakasar concludes that even 
ugh The yijnanakalus are affected by 5fl<zvfl only, they 

using sudaha maya and tirodh&yi urtil they get liberation* 

quotes : 



Qff<sosDG$!ii&<3 : 

<SO Gl^fT 

gi tj^/ 

Tally a vliakkam. 



iT ifi MFTlf 1 ILJKl&Gff t&llftlLlfoJ & FT ? SSlff lit 

& IT fi uj w i3 <$sr ucur Gurrsb 

1.32 



gives the full explanation of the latter verse, supporting 
se passages frcm Saivagamas- He says that the phrase 
xnga v<~ruh%lam f<9/& su^&nscuj) must not be split 
into 'odunga' and 'varukalarn' because the author speaks 
Lit creation in the beginning and ends with destruction, 
re is no cause for speaking again of creation which is 
lied by the splitting up of the words. He also observes 

this verse speaks abcut k&rana m%y% and so creation 
not be meant here- He also strengthens his argument 
quoting the Tirunerivifakkam verse which closely follows 
prakzsam, the parallel word for 'odunga varuhalarri is 
li onrunj ceyyada virukalom (s^s^&srQuj^fforg^^ 
jiu(i& Gtfrru&nsDLb). Thus he argues elaborately for his 

is that the souls must reside in the katana maya in 

kevala state and must come with the evolutes of far) a 

a at the time of creation. 



213 



stsu&r 

SivapraTcasam 23. 



&UUL.L. LD IT 65) UJ u9 Co 60 ^SJT/ 



Madura! Sivaprak^sar's commenta y p-103- 

He also quotes two verses, one dealing with the objection 
of the 



<fi eo ih i$ gyr GO & dr u rr &> 

) GD 6U UJ Q ID 6Q 60 IT p $ QST L/cK6B6i) 

$ Qiu IT 



Slvajnana Siddhiyar Para; aksam 225. 



12. 

27. c u6fot-&$Q$ > tT$ 



24 
28, The author of cintanai urai gives these quotations. 



68)6Sr $ IT 6$ 68) 611 



also ' Jn&namrdam. 

&<$gjieu ^tretfi&m 
(tpi}.&ff<5&Lpuurirr&6rr 
u i$ it}. g> ,] u iffon&eiiJf&eir 

sussr^efrirGeo 

Tirumandiram 2611 
29* Sivajnjna Munivar quotes 



to reinforce the point that there is WK/^ v;wa/ apart from iruvinai m 
He takes the word ei/*tnffr<6b as the object of the verb* 



<sr GST t_j if 

r& Q <3> IT QSST t_ /T ff 



tfj/TLO/rp iuiT6issro^L.uj 

Mapadiyam p. 135 



214 

80. '<g 



24 

81. '<5T(t}$,&<$3 l 6$)6sr uj$ ^po/jgi/ &,u9Q.jd^' i $!TQssr 

<57 UJ gtf G l& $r &$ 60 



Sivaprak&aam 24. 
32. 'sflGtnssiGujrr &6sr($& Q&[r&68eu@tL[rnuj($uj(T 

^^)/65)SU (Ifip&ff &LP&&&I' 

Sivaprakasam 25- 



Sankarpa nirakaranam f Aikyavg^di Nirakaranam 2-6* 
88. 'j$$i nff<su& $&$$$/ wirGro* 

Sivaptakasam 25. 

84. '. . . ^m^tfrtb s.^^sssri.nQsa gLtsrrgttDSGiLb 



Sivapraknsam 25- 

(tpomsfrQiuff &6fftfi($ LOT)' 

- Siva j Sana Sfddhiyar 2 86 
PorripahrodQi, couplet 1 ', 

' 



- Vakkundam 11, 
36. K- M Baksubrarnanram, Special lectures onSaivaSiddhanta 
pp 82-83, published by the Annamalai University. 
37- Sivajnana Siddhiyar 2.86 and SJvajn^na yogin's comm< ro- 
tary on it and Sivaprakasam 25 and cimanai utui on it 
give the clear picture of the bonds. 

CF. also- Tiruvuruka mamalai Swamigal's Commentary 
p8Q- It fs interesting to note that among the Commenta- 
tors of Si\aprakasam f the author of Cintanai urai follows 
Sivajnana Munivar and Madurai Sivaprakarfar and Sivagra 
Yogin agree on important points. Both Sivajnana Yogin and 
Sivagra Yogin accept that sprout may be compared to karma, 
but they differ with regard to the other two- MaciuraS 
Sivaprafcaiar quotes 



215 

&6sriL(ip 



6B/T633T ^ 65) <SfT tl/ % 

<Sfl"gP <JD)J/J76i/<Sl//rLDp60 $6&r60t&tTtLI //D( 

- Tirumandiram 2192. 
and 



88. '^(JacStL S-j^/s^S cSveznt-/ cresr s_ezn/rLfL;yr 

. Sivaprakasam 27. 

39. In Sivajnana Siddhiyar, the ^5/a tattva is mentioned 
first, while in Sivaprakasam Jcal& tattva is mentioned first 
The reason is to be found in the fact that Arufnandi Sivam 
explains the creation of the world and so &a& comes first- 
Umapati Sivam explains the way in which the soul knows 
and in this process kala has to come first- Madurai Siva- 
prakasar justifies this difference by quoting the N annul 
sutra 8 



40. *3y@p/6Jr Q/s/r/p/tb 

- Sivaprakasdtn 28* 



41. 

$nj)t9efr&fftu t 

- Sivaprakas&m 28. 

42 Cintanai Urai p. 772 

43 ....... iL$&$tLiriu ^^uttjsir/r 

t/60/r/r6ff>) 



- Sivaprakasam 28. 

44. 



29. 
45. 



CHAPTER V 

NOTES AND REFERENCES 

1. ' $ u $ gff 60 Q^/resrssr cSy/D^^/Dsar/ra) ^stDs/rsi/^s/ruJ' 

SivapraJcaSam J 



2. 'SfismtuQiussr D(/5Q/iJ36ZD6}/ tutrsyin 



Sivctprak^sam |Q 

3- Umapati does not explain Cary& f kriy& and yoga in 
Sivopiakfouw. So the treatment here follows closely the 
Sivejn&na Sid&hiy^r and its exposition by Dr V. A- De v esen~ 
apathi's Saiva Siddh^nta as expounded in the Sivajnana 
Siddhiyar end its commentaries' pp. 250*251- 

4- Jnaneprc.kasar> one of the commentator of the Sivajnzna 
^iddJiiyar says that they are related to &tman r sthana, 
dravya, mantra and ting a. 

5- Scheme ru s p. 277- (quoted in &aiva Siddhanta V. paranjotj 
p- 179) 

G, 



ffresr&flsb <ormssr 

Sivaprakasam 86- 

Qt-sarCJ/D ^ l T6srjLD6w/t)7" Lprtsssi 
Q^/rsueu ca/aj 



9. , 

L//T@/ SfftifltUlJ LJL).i&T* 

Tiruvarutpayan 5Q 

10. * 



Sivajnana Siddhiyar 12-6 

11. 4 



Bodham 8.2-3 

12. ws^gigy G&irtu&& s_fflrs^ ew/refr/^ c^swssr^ 
^^jw^/o 6B/rewi/(Jfr/7 ^65r 

Tiruvarulpayan 42 



217 

IS. 'S$L./5<$60LO Gl&GffDI& QlLlLJU 



Tiruvarutpayan 47 
14. ',^/r a/$a//r/r srsbeoyro) st&my) Qpff 



Tiruvarutp >yan 49 

15- Schomerus p 304 quoted in Paranjoti's Sw/va 
p- 188 



16. 



Sivaprakasam 83. 

17. 'frL.iq.uj &i&$6srir(*60 $6s>p<2)i ( rF ) r s_ c /56w/ruL/o//&^/ T 

Sivaprak&sam 68. 

18. SSN/D^/D ^SB^* ^65)^<S5pa) ^ P ($ U) ff G /D 

Sivaprdkasam 68. 
19. 



Cu/r 
20. 



G/DuCp.5/r/r 

StHTluQea 

Appar Tevaram. Namaccivayatiruppadigam. 



21. 

i9$fi$6b' fitrdr 

Tiruvarulpayan 62. 

22- Kanchi Jnanaprakasa Swamigars commentary on /? 
Vi\akkam p. 100. He also says that taiway* here den< 
m&yeya i.e., instruments made from ^aya, and 
juddha m%ya. He quotes 



(Tiruvanaikka puranatto, Jnanaupadesa padalam 17 1 18.) 
23. Mapadiyam pp- 145-148- 



&.L.iii i es>ujp$i 

n& Bodham* 



218 

25. '^GffLjrrHsuiTiT gjssrunir ^^<sBm 
dtGsrLj&Guffir (/panriy^sw/r/r tfesr 1 

Tiruvarutpayan 71. 



26. toiiaju t9/Dj(5f)6W 

Sivaprakasam 82. 

27. 



Tirujnxna Sambandhar puranam 844- 

28. 



Sivaprak^sam 87, 

29. '^sorQptresrfD Q&iresrGp &ftm tyGsrGsDug' 

Sivajnar.a BodJiam 2.1.2* 

Qttlrr&rnflssr 



87< 
Cf- also- 



snyfiesfr 

Aikt,avadi niralearanam 26-27 SanJearpanirsJtarajjaftt 



eplfl . ^ssrtJ&fr 
i nirakaranam 63-64 $ankarpanirakafanam a 



Nifkunilai, Ennatkanni. 



sa 

8, 



Porripahrodai 77* > 8 



20, 

""Sivaprakasam 89- 



CHAPTER VI 

NOTES AND REFERENCES 

1. Cintanai Ural. |>. 800 

2. Mapadiyvim p< 411 

8. 



Sankarpa nirakaranam, Safaa v&di nir&karanam. 13-' 

4. ,j5fl-t*tiJ &oP ufrM pirgiurrpib 

Sivtoprak&sam 49 

5. Ctntanai Urai p % 801. 

6. * ... s 



10. '/Bm^ 



Sivaprak&sam 13 

7. "a/Sjfcii) ^J 1 *^ fi50/r.^ <W^Q<*cg>g? ^(/5<aPfflrt(J3 
<sufc$wtryi&*F #th&i!i&s*y enir$ujft GugwirG&t 

~Sivapraicasam 9C 

3. ' 



91 

Cf. also. 



i vijakkam 41 

$t_or& 



8' 

fi 1 fiu^fin iris8<iJl? $$$& 
> //f/D Glwgyttf 

Tiruvarutpayan 8< 
Tiruvacak&r 



Appar Tevarai 

II. 



9; 



220 

12- S. S. Surryanarayana, Sastri, 'Saivism and Tamil 

an article included in "collected papers o f Professor 
Suryanarayana Sastri", University of Madras,. Madras. 

13< Sivajfitfna Munivar's Commentary (cirrurai) on, Si 
Bodham 9.3.1. 



Maraimalaf Adigaf, Tkuvacaga wrivuraf p. 17 



Cintanai Urai p. 852 
16- Maduraf SFvaprakasar's Commentary p, 318* 

17. 



Tirukkottumbi 

18. 



Tiruvarutpdyan 80* 
19. 



Stvaprakasam 94 

20. 



Ttrwarmpayan 78- 



'Vina yerjba II 

22-. *. . . ^/rar (]>ujrf<& 



Sivajfiar.a Siddkiyar 
also- 



The Commentator of TiruKkalirrupadiyar says that If the 
evil effects of cinava are destroyed and if the disciple 
follows either -wy<* or faty* or Yoga t then also he is 
called ynstni. 

"2=3, '...(fp/BOT^ tu$s$& Q&fn-fr& itfesrirssr ^^ss^ /oec/PcJr a/fl-jib Guirp 



Se'kJcijar f Candesvara nayan^r puranam 13 

&6$>&ju96sr Qutrfiil Qasbss) eo ujnw$>LpQ>e$ Qujar* Q&n 
^^ <$6!n&u56tfrD Qpefiip&vtr fvu Qu&fr&ian&tunfr' 
'Sekkijar f cundesvar* nayan&r pur ana m T5, 

555^(7 

Tiruvarutpayan 100. 



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BALASUBRAMAN1AM 
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MUNIVAR 

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Saiva Siddhanta Works Publish 

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Tevara 0|jnerik Ratturai- Mad 
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OF Human Bondage and Divine G 

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Hymns of the Rigveda- Bena 

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Thirteen principal upanisads. Lone 

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M^Iavikagni Mitra, translated 

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MACN1COL, NicoF 

MANAV^SAGAM 
KADANDAR 



MANAV/fSAGAM 
KADANDAR 

M^NIKKAVACAGAR 



MARAfMALAf ADIGAL : 



MEENAKSHI 

SUNDARAM, T-P 



MEYKAMDAR 



MEYKANDAR, etc. 
NAKKiRAR 

NALLASAMi PILLAf 
J.M. 

NAMBlYAlMDAR 

NAMBI 



Indian Theism 1 . London, Oxford 
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Umnai Vi/akkam, edited by Rama- 
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India Saiva Siddhanta Works Publis- 
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U^mai Viakkam with the Commen- 
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Madras, M i-nikkam Padippagam, 1 967- 

Firuvacagam edited with the commenr- 
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Dharmapuram, The Dharmapura 
Adhlnam, 1966. 

Tkuv^caga Virivurai. Madras, The 
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Agamic Tattvas and Conception of 
Mind (in "Essays in Philosophy", 
edited by C. T. K. Chari, Madras, 
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Sivajnana Bodhanrj with the commen- 
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by Avvai Duraisami Pillai, Annmalai 
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Siddhanta Sastram. Madras, The Saiva 
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Tirumurugarmpadai. Madras Arumuga r 
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Studies in Saiva siddhanata- Madras, 
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Vinayakar Tiruvirattai Manimalai. 
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PARANJOTH1 Violet 
PJLLA1, isvafamurthi 
PONN1AH 

POPE, G U< 

RAMAN UJACHAR!, R. 

SEKKiLAR 

SERAMAN PERUMAL 

NAYANAR 

SERAMAN PERUMAL 
NAYANAR 

SIVAQRAYOGIN 



S1VAJNANA MUN1VER 



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SfvaneriprakSsam, edited with com- 
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SUBYANARAYANA 

SASTRI, S.S- 

TAYUMANAVAR 



TiRUJNAlMA 

SAMBANDHAR 

TtRUJNANA 

SAMBANDHAR 

TIRUJNANA 

SAMBANDHAR 

TIRUJNANA 
SAMBANDHAR etc, 
TIRUMALIGA1DEVAR 

TIRUMULA^ 



TIRUVALLUVAR 



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: Jayumana Swamigal Padaf. 
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: First Tirumurai, edited by 

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UMAPATI SIVAM 

UMAPATI S1VAM 
UMApATl SIVAM 

UMAPATI SIVAM 
UMAPATI SIVAM 
UMApATl SIVAM 

UMApATi SIVAM 
UMAPATI SIVAM 

UMAPATI SIVAM 
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S!VAM 



S-IVAM 



VAJRAVEUJ 

MUDALIAR 

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ARTICLES 

VALLALAR ^ 'Tattva Vilakkan/- 

Siddhanatm, March 1959, 



NABAYAMASWAWH AIYAR, M. 



THIRUJNA.NA SAMBANTHAM, 

P. 



'S#ta Samhita on the Saiva 
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DIPIKA Vol. 4, No- 6, 
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Sataratna Sangraham- Saiva 
Siddhanta VoM, No.2, 1966- 



Page 


Line Error 


To be corrected 


3 


12 most the 


the most auth 




authoritative 




5 


16 un conventinal 


un conventional 


15 


31 contrahr 


contrary 


15 


32 tey 


the 


16 


15 (aniryancaniyam) 


anirvacamyam 


28 


25 to assme 


to assume 


34 


5 there 


these 


34 


29 dislikee 


dislikes 


35 


9 relm 


realm 


35 


31 colnqured 


conquered 


35 


35 nad 


and 


39 


32 conealment 


concealment 


39 


32 relity 


reality 


10 


15 Gad 


God 


11 


24 dise 


disc 


42 


1 6 deuetes 


denotes 


46 


last rom 


from 




line 




48 


1 2 alk?as 


dik&s 


48 


1 9 kariya 


kriya 


49 


last pady 


pada 




line 




52 


Foot Dr. Devasena Kather's 


Devesenapathy's 




note 




52 


19 other there other 


there are other 




individuals 


individuals 


59 


6 state fo 


state of 


64 


25 preembodies 


preembodied 


68 


6 nstruments 


instruments 


68 


7 ommiscience 


omniscience 



>^--"'--- 

,-^ v ---':, 



Error 



To be corrected as 



- g 


hing 


thing 


70 10 


Sivajnana 


Sivajnana 




Siddhiyar 421. 


Siddhiyar 4,21 


73 29 


Grece 


Grace 


75 17 


embiyonic 


embryonic 


76 20 


firs 


firs't 


77 last line 


hings 


things 


79 33 


ingredulonts 


ingredients 


84 26 


riirmpht 


triumph 


85 14 


reflectiog 


reflecting 


92 7 


muladhana 


muladhara 


97 third 


It 


If 


line from 






bottom 






98 fifth line 


sow 


soul 


from last 






101 14 


the fold state 


the two - fold state 


109 24 


What 


that 


115 19 


a\ 


ta\ 


120 17 


undan^dal 


udanadal 


134 17 


envolved 


evolved 


134 18 


beinning 


beginning 


141 7 


sujya 


sflywjya 


164 16 


thery of 


theory of 


171 12 


merlay 


merely